The end-of-course grades assigned by lecturers are intended to convey the level of achievement of each student in the class. These grades are used to make a multitude of decisions. Unless a sufficiently, accurate and efficient method is used for the grading, the grades are applied to convey misinformation and lead the decision-maker astray. In itself, the processing of results is found to be rather tedious, especially when carried out manually, and when the number of students is large. It is time-consuming and error prone. The process, however, becomes a lot easier and much more accurate when carried out with a computer running a suitable software application. To find a sufficiently fast and accurate method of carrying out this processing is a problem that is both challenging and interesting. In this work, a computer software application was developed to facilitate the automated processing of the results. The software was developed in visual basic programming language. The developed software performed well and produced expected results on completion. With it, it was possible to compute Grade Point Average and Cumulative Grade Point Average for each student based on examination scores entered.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Over the years, the body controlling the higher education system in Benin Republic including Houdegbe North American University has adopted the considerable variation in the grading system using both letter (A-F) and figure (0-4) consecutively. The percentage score, letter grades, grade point average (GPA) and cumulative grade point average (CGPA) and the status of pass are a minimum pass mark of 50% (equivalent to grade point of 1) 60% (equivalent to grade point of 2) 75% (equivalent to grade point of 3) and 90% (equivalent to grade point of 4).A minimum grade point average of 2.00 is required for a graduating student including the students in Houdegbe North American University.
In education, a grade (or mark) is a teacher’s standardized evaluation of a student’s work. In some countries, evaluation can be expressed quantifiably and calculated into a numeric grade point average (GPA), which is used as a metric by employers and others to assess and compare students.
The Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Benin is consistent with the degree classification in Benin by adopting grades which is an indication of individual performance in each course taken at the university. These grade point equivalents are used to determine a student’s grade point average. The common denominator for assessing a student’s overall performance in a program of study regardless of the number of credit units taken is the cumulative grade point average (CGPA).
1.2 Statement Of Problems
Historically, result computation and students data record management in SOCSMIT faculty in the Houdegbe North American University, Benin has been affected by several factors based on the current manual processing method used such as:
- Loss of vital information relating to student result/ records
- The time and labour involved in the student result computation of CGPA
- Files and records not properly kept.
- Miscalculation of students CGPA after graduation.
- Difficulties involved in searching for a specified record
- Wrong transcription and mutilations by accident or on purpose
- Information is very insure and can be accessed by the wrong persons.
- Insecurity of the result, which can be modified by unauthorized person/or access.
- Use of filing cabinets makes retrieval of information very difficult.
- Difficult of data sharing i.e. from HOD’s offices to exams and records.
1.3 Aims Of The Study
The aim of this project is to enhance the activities of the education stakeholders liken Ministère l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique(MESRS),The Ministry of Technical Teaching and Vocational Training (MEFTP), students, lecturers, administrative officers to calculate the GPA and cumulative grade point average (CGPA) by creating a database for students with the use of Microsoft Access with less or no stress or difficulty with the aid of computer software environment that is visual Basic 6.0 rather than manual calculation method.
1.4 Objectives Of The Study
The main objective of this project is to provide a faster means of reducing some (or all) the problem encountered during result computation and registration of student such as:
- Errors due to over sight
- Redundancies in record keeping
- Errors in computation
- Difficulties in sharing
- Delay in computation
- Duplication of result
1.4 Significance Of The Study
Due to the fact that the world is becoming more and more computerized, there is need for the implementation of this system because of the paperwork in the computation of CGPA and lack of track of students’ results and their CGPA. This study facilitates accurate calculation of students’ CGPA to enable staff know where the student’s CGPA fall in the class of degree i.e. either 1st class, 2nd class e.t.c and also enable students know their grades. There is need for this study to be implemented because of its benefits and functions. Ignoring this study could lead to various consequences like; the inability to hold track of students’ results, CGPA. It could also lead to the inability of the University to know students with good grades and performance and which student is to be taught and encouraged to improve in his/her studies.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this project is to handle the computation of CGPA i.e. students overall academics performance, this indicates the individual grade level attainment at various higher awarding institutions across the nation and the worlds educational sector at large.
This implies that the preliminary calculation of cumulative grade point average (CGPA) involving manual calculation will be replaced electronically with the use of computer.
1.5 Limitations Of The Study
Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in Visual Basic (VB.Net) prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
RESULT: A final score or mark in a contest or examination.
COMPUTATION: To calculate a particular thing.
GRADE: A mark indicating the quality of a student’s work.
CGPA: An abbreviation for Cumulative Grade Point Average.
CREDIT UNIT: It is a unit that is an equivalent value to an academic course.
LECTURER: A member of the faculty in the university that lead research groups and supervise research students, as well as teach them.
GRADING SYSTEM: This is the pattern and methods used to award a value to the student’s scores.
UNDERGRADUATE STUDENT: Refers to students who are pursuing a bachelor’s degree.
GRADE POINT (GP):- The number of quality point divided by the earned hours with grades that count in the GPA e.g. A =4.0, A- = 3.67, B+=3.33, B=3, B-=2.47, F =0, e.t.c.
GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GPA):- This is the numbers of quality points divided by the earned hours with grades that count in the grade point Average (GPA).
GRADING POLICIES:- Grading system faculty members are responsible for providing a grade based upon the officially approved grading system for every student enrolled in their classical at the end of the term of enrolment.
AUDITING A COURSE:- Student interested in auditing courses must receive prior approval from the instructor of the class. It is the responsibility of student to seek permission from the instructor and inform the department and student affairs office they are auditing the class. The instructor is to indicate audit on the grade roster instead of assigning a grade.
COURSE CODE:- A Course code is used to distinguish the different levels of courses of students.
POINTS:- Quality Point is the number of attempted hours multiplied by a quality point number associated with the grade.The grading system for both letter (A-F) and figure (0-4).