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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Increasing global concern over climate change has fostered the development of a myriad of technologies all over the world to combat this growing problem. It is necessary to understand the climate change technologies that are being pursued all over the world, in other to analyse the technologies researched within the Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) and identify what is appropriate from National Center for Environmental Research(NCER) funding in the future(IPCC AR4 SYR 2001).
The earth’s climate is generally defined as the average weather over a long period of time. A place or regions is determined by both natural and anthropogenic (human made) factors. The natural element includes the atmosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. While, the human factors can include land and resource uses. Changes in any of this factors can cause local, regional, or even global changes in the climate(IPCC AR4 SYR 2001).
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when the change last for an extended period of time (i.e decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather around longer term average conditions.
Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by the earth, plate tectonics and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often reffered to as global warming.

1.2 STATEMENTPROBLEM OF THE STUDY
Climate change is largely attributed to anthropogenic activities by the human race such as industrial activities, energy generation and agriculture, resulting in the increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, to such an extent that the gases extend natural variation essential to regulate the earth temperature and to support life. These additional gases trap heat and thus enhance the greenhouse effect resulting in global warming and climate change. The three main gases that has an effect on climate change are carbon-dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide of which have increased in our atmosphere since 1800. Global figures show that these gases have increasedby 32%, 157% and 18% respectively from 1800 to 2005.
It is indisputable that climate change will result in food insecurity, notable in rural areas. The grass root level is noticed in terms of deficiencies in food production. Shortage of water, food, increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and changing spread of disease vectors will all lead to a greater health and life risk.

1.3 AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to design a database for information and to create awareness on climate change in Africa.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• To design a database for climate change information.
• To link the web to existing related sites.
• To create a platform for release of information
• To create alert platform.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project is based on reports, figures and data made available on the internet, through a review of existing strategies, relevant council discussion, documents and consultation with relevant council staff. This report shall discuss the existence and cause of global warming. How the emission of greenhouse gases can be controlled to reduce its danger to the atmosphere. This report shall also cover important areas on climate change like the impacts of climate change to the environment and the response from people(human race) towards this issue. And also, the precautious steps we need to take and how we can adapt to negative changes in the nearby future.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The reason studying climate and the change of climate is significant is that, it will affect people around the whole world. Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels, change precipitation and other local climate conditions. Changing regional climate could alter forest, crop yields and water supply.
Scenes of flooding and storms show us just how much weather and climate can affect our lives. Understanding and predicting how climate will change over the next century is of vital importance. Both for our society and the Globe.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Anthropogenic: Environmental pollution originating from the influence of human activities.
Atmosphere: A layer of gases surrounding the earth.
Biosphere: the ecosystem that comprises of the entire earthand the living organisms in it.
Biotic: associated with life and living organisms.
EPA: Environmental Protection Agency.
Geosphere: refers to the solid part of the earth. It includes the earth interiors, rocks, minerals e.t.c
Global warming: a term used to describe the rise in the average temperature of the earth’s climate system.
Greenhouse gases: A gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emit radiation, and also radiates heat in all directions.
Hydrosphere: this is the total amount of water on the surface of the planet, underground and in the air.
NCER: National Center for Environmental Research.
Plate tectonics: a theory that the earth’s outer shell is divided into small number of plates which floats and travels over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core.
Precipitation: this is any form of water, liquid or solid falling from the sky. It includes rain, snow, ice, sleet e.t.c
Solar radiation: this is a radiant energy emitted by the sun. It includes all of the light and energy of all forms
Volcanic eruption: the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic materials.


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