Background of the Study
Technology the world over is dynamic. With advancement in technology, electronic gadgets and other products that are imported or assembled in Nigeria are coming with new devices to such an extent that technological development is in a constant state of flux and change. The influence of technological development in electronics industries has rendered traditional skills inadequate for work while creating the need for new and often sophisticated skills. Capri, Ozseevgec, Sayilkan and Emre (2004) noted that because most students get information via visual content sources like computer which are used in daily life very much, it is more difficult to teach students by conventional means. If principles of how students learn are taken into account, richness of the visual content makes instruction more lasting and effective Mudasiru and Adedeji, (2010). One possible solution to these challenges is the use of computer assisted instructional teaching approach.
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) or Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) refers to use of computer as a tool in teaching and learning. Computer Assisted Instruction according to Rabia (2004) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the
learning that takes place. In a computer assisted instruction the students receive feedback from the computer and maintain some degree of control (Okundaye, 2005). Some of the computer assisted instruction methods include simulation, tutorial, drill and practice.
Tutorial provides generally new information to the students in much the same manner as a human teacher or tutor might. According to Mevarech (1985) CAI tutorials are based on the principles of programmed learning or instruction.
Instructional activities are presented either in linear or branching method which uses hyperlink for videos and, graphs. CAI tutorial gives immediate feedback, create proficiency in computer usage, and gives students a sense of control over learning, calls for using sight, hearing and touch (Bialo and Silvin, 1990). Drill involves a sequence of tasks, exercises, or words repeated over and over until they can be performed faultlessly. In a CAI drill and practice design, the computer screen presents the student with questions to respond to or problems to solve, the student responds, the computer informs the student whether the answer is correct and if the student is right, he or she is given another problem to solve, but
if the student responds with a wrong answer, he or she is corrected by the computer (Mudasiru and Adedeji 2010). Drill and tutorial are interactive and help students remember the concepts they have been taught previously (Rabia, 2004).
The CAI tutorial when used in combination with drill provides instruction in such a way that each tutorial lesson has a series of frame or branches. The frame or branch poses questions to students at the end of each lesson. Student answers questions about the lesson and gets immediate feedback. On each answer, if the student answers correctly, he will be told to proceed to the next frame but if the response of the student is wrong, the package will take him or her back to the frame where the answer could be found or on the alternative gives the correct answer to the student before proceeding to a new frame. The student has to respond to every framed questions in the exact order presented and there is no deviation from this presentation but the student does have the freedom to work through the material at his or her own pace (Mudasiru and Adedeji 2010).
In addition, the use of computer tutorial and drill for instruction brings with it several benefits as a teaching/learning medium. These include self-paced learning, self-directed learning, the exercising of various senses and the ability to represent content in a variety of media. With self-paced learning, learners can move as slowly or as quickly as they like through a program. According to Cotton, K. (2001), tutorial and drill allow students to progress at their own speed of learning as they offer learners controlled instructions, provide prompt feedback, allow for adaptability of instructions (presentations mode and instructional content mode) using authoring systems, provides lessons with more than one purpose, random access facilities, and provides facilities for revisions and updating. With self-directed learning, learners can decide what they want to learn and in what order. Various studies (Entwistle, 1981; Schmeck 1988; Ford and Chen, 2001) have shown that when learners learn in a way that suits them, improvements in the effectiveness of the learning process normally occur. Humans are multi-sensory animals. The more senses through which we receive information, the easier it is to remember. According to Fletcher (1990), people remember 20% of what they hear, 40% of what they see and hear and 75% of what they see, hear and do. The fact that the computer can exercise various senses and present information in a variety of media can enhance the learning process. Meskill and Mossop (1997) reported that computer assisted instruction encourage learning as it enhance students’ interaction with the learning environment which in turn help sustain students’ interest in learning and consequently improve students’ achievement and retention of learning.
Students’ achievement refers to performance in a school subject as designated by a score or mark obtained in an achievement test. According to Anene (2005) achievement is quantified by a measure of the student’s academic standing in relation to those of other students of his age. Interest is a persisting
tendency to pay attention and enjoy some activities. Interest has been viewed as emotionally oriented behavioural trait which determines a student’s vim and vigour in tackling educational programmes or other activities (Chukwu, 2002). Retention of learning on the other hand, refers to a repeated performance by a learner, of behaviour earlier acquired, elicited after an interval of time (Momoh-olle, 1997). It is affected by degree of original learning, the method of learning and learner’s memory capacity, among other factors. In a study, Momoh-olle found that male generally outperformed girls in retention test in Physics while (2003) found a similar result in technology education. Students’ interest, achievement and retention in any learning activity are sustained by the active involvement of the
learner in all aspects of the learning process. Ogwo and Oranu, (2006) and Ngwoke (1995) emphasized that unless the teacher stimulates students’ interest in learning, students’ achievement will be minimal. Hence, it is essential that technical teachers use teaching method which ensures students’ active involvement in learning and provide suitable learning environment to improve achievement, retention and stimulate interest of students in Basic Electronics.
Basic Electronics is one of the vocational subjects offered at senior secondary school (SSS) level in Nigeria. According to Adesina (2002), electronics is a field of study that is both science and technology related. It is concerned with the ways in which the movement of electrons through space is controlled and
manipulated. Its applications feature in radios, televisions, computers, transmitters, receivers, aeronautics and other related equipment. The objectives of studying basic electronics in senior secondary schools in Nigeria according to Federal Ministry of Education (FME, 1985) are to: develop a further understanding of the basic concepts and principles of electronics; build and test simple electronic
devices; develop skills in circuit fault tracing and repairs; apply simple electronic devices in the construction of electronic system and; prepare students adequately for further work in electronics. The National Policy on Education (2004) stipulated that Electronics should be one of the Vocational courses to be taught in Senior Secondary School to provide trained manpower and give training necessary for an
acquisition of skills to individual who shall be self-reliance economically. But the way topics in Basic Electronics are taught appears to lack instructional procedure that creates interactive style. Berryman (2000) noted that the implication is that the instructions are not logically sequenced to fit the ability of the learners as teachers could not provide teacher-led practice to engage in reciprocal teaching.
According to Boyle, Duffy and Donleavy (2003) the methods are based on behavioural learning theory, emphasize knowledge transmission from teachers to passive students and encourage rote memorization of facts. Campbell and Campbell (1999) noted that when students are passive in the classroom, they
become apathetic and repulsive to learning. The consequence is that students are unable to retain their learning and apply it to new situation (Roegge, Wentling and Bragg, 1996). The shortcomings of the present teaching methods partly accounted for the poor performance of students in the Senior School Certificate Examination and National Examination Council (NECO) Examinations. In West Africa
Examination Council Chief Examiners’ reports (1989 and 1990) showed that the performance of senior secondary school students in basic electronics was very poor. The council advised among others, that vocational subjects of which Basic Electronics is one of them should be taught with appropriate teaching methods to achieve better results. WAEC results showed that average failure rate in basic electronics in the years 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006 were 86%, 94.29%, 68.85%, 72%, 30.76%, 24%, 28.82%, 40.14%, 56.84%, 59.57% and 42.49% respectively (WAEC National Office, Lagos Public Affairs Unit Vol.05/L/PR/92). In the same vein, statistics of NECO examination
results showed that average failure rate in basic electronics in the years 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 were 79.90%, 58.65%, 75.34%, 94.63% and 68.27% respectively.
The increasing effects of globalization and the rapid rate of technological changes on work places have informed the recommendation by United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and International Labour Organization (ILO) (2002) that all technical and vocational education system in the 21st century should be geared towards life long learning. This requires that schools should in addition to academic skills; inculcate workplace basic skills such as learning to learn, creativity, problem solving skills, collaborative skills and higher order thinking skills in order to increase the students’ flexibility and job mobility which will make them adaptable to the present and envisaged changes (Hallak and Poisson, 2000 and Paris, 1998). In this context, Rojewskin (2002) noted that a shift from teacher-centred instruction to learner-centred instruction is needed to enable students acquire the new 21st century knowledge and skills. In order to attain to students centered method of teaching Basic Electronics, Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) was to b used.
However, several studies have been conducted on CAI in many subjects. These studies indicated very different results. Some of the studies found no significant difference between CAI and conventional teaching methods on students’ achievement, retention and interest (Nurettin, Simsek, Özlem and Çakır,
2009; Cetin, 2007; Alacapinar, 2003; Bayraktar, 2001). Some other researches found CAI more effective in improving students’ achievement, interest and retention than the use of conventional teaching methods (Liao, 2007; Bryan, 2006; Wilder, 2006; Brooks, 2005; Preciado, 2004; Moodly, 2004; Cater, 2004; Yenice, 2003; Brophy, 1999, Child 1995; Morse, 1991; Cotton, 1991). Additionally,
studies such as Onasanya, Daramola and Asuquo, (2006), which examined effect of gender on achievement of students taught Introductory Technology with CAI have shown that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement of male and female students. Gender is a psychological term, which describes behaviours and attributes expected of individual on the basis of being a male or a
female (Uwameiye and Osunde, 2005). The obvious implication of these findings showed that the use of CAI in teaching is not significant in all subjects for students’ achievement, interest and retention.
Statement of the Problem Learning outcome of every student according to Bakare, 2009, majorly
depends on the type of teaching methods, teaching strategies, and instructional techniques or approaches employed by the teacher during instruction. Traditional teaching methods such as lecture, demonstration and field trip adopted for teaching basic electronics in senior secondary school by teachers are often referred to as conventional teaching method termed to be teacher centered instead of students
centered (Sonola, 2007). This method of teaching technical subjects according to her, discouraged creativity and disallowed students from thinking beyond what is presented to them by their teachers. The students are reduced to passive learners and as a result become apathetic and repulsive to learning.
Since literature review showed that there was no perfect superiority of CAI over conventional teaching methods, the researcher decided to study combined effect of Tutorial and Drill on Senior Secondary School students’ achievement, interest and retention in basic electronics to find out whether it will be more significant than the use of CAI.
The report from Federal Ministry of Education (1993, WAEC 1996-2006) (NECO 2001-2005) identified lack of application of effective methodology for teaching technical subjects as major reason for low academic achievements of students in senior secondary schools – Cambell and Cambell (1999), also
explained that traditional method of teaching do not adequately equip teachers with contemporary views of students intelligences and their vast learning capabilities.
Recommendation of UNESCO and ILO (2002), that vocational and technical education system in the 21st century should be geared towards life long learning cannot be achieved by traditional teaching methods use by the teachers of senior secondary school to teach basic electronics. Hence, this traditional teaching
methods used by these teachers may be responsible for the low academic achievement in basic electronics.
In view of the need to use computer technology to provide student-centered and interactive knowledge environment, several studies had been conducted to determine the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students’ achievement, interest and retention in various disciplines. These studies ended up with many different results. While some of the studies found no significant difference between CAI and traditional teaching methods.
Some of the studies found significant difference between CAI and traditional teaching methods on students’ achievement, interest and retention. Hence, this study therefore is to determine the combine effect of Computer Tutorial and Drill as alternative teaching method on senior secondary school students’ achievement, interest, and retention in Basic Electronics in Lagos state.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to determine combined effect of Computer Tutorial and Drill on senior secondary school student’s achievement, interest and retention in Basic Electronics in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. Determine the achievement scores of students taught Basic Electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods.
2. Determine the interest of students taught Basic Electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods.
3. Determine the retention of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods.
4. Compare the achievement scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill.
5. Compare the interest scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill.
6. Compare the retention of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill.
Significance of the Study
The benefits that shall accrue from this study are many, specifically, teachers will benefit from the result of this study in that they will use the instrument to evaluate the students, rather than the teacher-made test. The achievement, interest and retention scores of students taught basic electronics with computer tutorial and drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods would enlighten technical teachers on the effectiveness of computer tutorial and drill. Technical teachers’ work will become easier and interesting as they will be playing supervisory roles. This will bring great improvement in technical teachers’ morale.
The knowledge gained from the skills in the use of computer tutorial and drill method of teaching basic electronics will be better as opposed to the present conventional teaching method which is teacher centered. Technical teachers will use student centered interactive knowledge classroom environment to secure and sustain the attention of the students in learning basic electronics. The knowledge of computer tutorial and drill if found effective will help the teachers to improve their instructional delivery to bridge the gap in achievement, interest of boys and girls in basic electronics.
The findings of this study if found to have positive effect and implemented will also be of benefit to students’ participation and interest in the class room activities. There will be improvement in students’ achievements and interest through the use of Computer Tutorial and Drill command to achieve active
engagement, frequent interaction, and connection to real world of work. This in turn will enable students to pass their SSCE examinations in basic electronics. Consequently, it will help to reduce the number of unemployed secondary school leaver’s rate of drop out, crime rate, violence, substance abuse and the rise of political extremism associated with it.
Ministry of Education (Technical Division) will benefit from the findings of this study. Effectiveness of Computer Tutorial and Drill will no doubt influence the decision of the Ministry of Education on the need to provide computers and laboratories in senior secondary schools if found to have positive effect. Further more, findings will also sensitize the Ministry to organize conferences, workshops and seminars to train basic electronics teachers on the use of Computer Tutorial and Drill to improve their instructional delivery.
The significance of this study is particularly in the area of curriculum development. The result will be of immense benefit to the basic electronics curriculum development experts. They will find it valuable especially in the provision of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of computer tutorial and drill
in the teaching of basic electronics. The information obtained, will hopefully influence future trend in basic electronics curriculum review. The findings of this study will provide curriculum planners with the information which could lead to the recommendation of Computer Tutorial and Drill in teaching basic electronics in senior secondary schools.
Lastly, this study will also serve as source of literature to schools and educational researchers.
The following research questions were formulated to guide this study:
1. What are the mean achievement scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods?
2. What are the mean interest scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods?
3. What are the mean scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using the conventional teaching methods in the retention test?
4. What are the mean achievement scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill?
5. What are the mean interest scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill in the interest inventory items?
6. What are the mean scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill in the test for retention of learning?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using conventional teaching methods.
Ho2: There is no significant interaction effect of treatments given to students by gender with respect to their mean scores in the basic electronics achievement test.
Ho3: There is no significant difference between the mean interest scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using conventional teaching methods in interest inventory items.
Ho4: There is no significant interaction effect of treatments given to students by gender with respect to their mean scores in basic electronics interest inventory items
Ho5: There is no significance difference between the mean scores of students taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill and those taught using conventional teaching methods in the test of retention of learning.
Ho6: There is no significant difference between the mean achievement scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill.
Ho7: There is no significant difference in the mean interest scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics using Computer Tutorial and Drill.
Ho8: There is no significant difference between the mean scores of boys and girls taught basic electronics with Computer Tutorial and Drill in a test of retention of learning.
Ho9: There is no significant interaction effect of treatments given to boys and girls with respect to their means scores in Basic Electronics retention of learning.
Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to determining the combined effects of Computer Tutorial and Drill on achievement, interest and retention of Senior Secondary School Students in basic electronics in Lagos State as well as the effects on the learning outcomes with regards to gender. Other aspects of Computer Tutorial and Drill such as simulation, games and others are not covered in this study.