ELECTORAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA:THE CASE OF ANAMBRA STATE GUBERNATORIAL ELECTIONS (2003 AND 2007)

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PREFACE

The research work examined the concept of Electoral Violence as perceived by some analysis of democratic elections. It traced the history of Electoral Violence in Nigeria. It also examined Electoral Violence during Governorship Elections in 2003 and 2007 with particular reference to Anambra State in the South Eastern Nigeria geo-political zone. The factors responsible for the Electoral Violence in
2003 and 2007 were examined. The work exposed the diverse dimensions of electoral violence manifest prior, during and after the election and consequent effects on lives and properties. Therefore, the objective of the study is to echo the fact that electoral violence, intimidation, corruption, indiscipline among other vices cannot ensure a democratic free society, good governance and stable society. Furthermore, this work highlighted the inefficiency of the security agents, their lack luster roles in the past general elections and the 2003 – 2007 governorship elections in Anambra State to project the need for their immediate reorientation and equipment for their primary role and importance to national
assignment. The enthronement of a genuine civilian government has been an illusion to Nigeria as a nation and Anambra State in particular. The revelation that the unemployed youths of this nation, as ready tools for electoral violence, fall pray to the wicked hands of the insensible, selfish and dare devil profit oriented politicians, that regard politics as a do or die affairs, should serve as a turning point for creation of employment opportunities for the youths to cause scarcity and discouragement for the money bag politicians and their godsons, to ensure peaceful elections.  Furthermore, this work touched on the causes of the inability of INEC as an electoral umpire not to have been able to conduct a generally adjudged credible, free and fair election acceptable to most Nigerians, local and international observers. It is therefore hoped that, the recommended electoral reformation, constitutional amendment and Electoral law review, will grant INEC true independence that would free it from tele guide of any sort and
enslavement to conduct free fraudulent and violent elections for the country Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………….……..i
CERTIFICATION PAGE …………………………………………………….ii
APPROVAL PAGE…………………………………………………………………..iv
DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………..v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………….…..vi
PREFACE ………………………………………………………….……..viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………..…..x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study……………………………………………………..1
1.2 Statement of Problem……………………………………………………..6
1.3 Objective of Study…………………………………………….…………..7
1.4 Significance of Study……………………………………….…..………..8
1.5 Scope of Study……………………………………………….…………..8
1.6 Literature Review…………………………………………….…………..9
1.6.1 Electoral Violence in Nigeria………………..…………………….9
1.6.2 Political Class and Electoral Violence……………………………12
1.6.3 Law Enforcement Agencies and Electoral Violence……………13
1.6.4 The Management of Elections By Electoral Body (INEC) and
Electoral Violence……………………………………….…………15
1.7 Theoretical Perspective………………………………………………….17
1.8 Hypothesis……………………………………………………..…………..18
1.9 Methodology………………………………………………………………19
CHAPTER TWO: HISTORY OF ELECTORAL VIOLENCE IN NIGERIA
2.1 The TIV Riots of 1960/1964………………………………….……….…20
2.2 The Federal or General Elections of 1964……………………………..21
2.3 The Western Election of 1965…………………………………..………23
2.4 The General Elections of 1983…………………………………………24
2.5 The General Elections of 1993…………………………………………….25
2.6 The 1998/1999 General Elections…………………………………….26
CHAPTER THREE: ELECTORAL VIOLENCE DURING GOVERNORSHIP ELECTIONS IN ANAMBRA STATE
3.1 Fraud, Intimidation and Violence……………………………….……..28
3.2 The 1999 Governorship Election: Post Electoral Violence …..…….32
3.3 The 2003 – 2004 Governorship Election: Post Electoral Violence…33
3.4 2007 Electoral Violence: Irregularities, Riggings and the Use of Thugs ………………………………………………………………………36
CHAPTER FOUR: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR ELECTORAL VIOLENCE
DURING GOVERNORSHIP ELECTION IN ANAMBRA STATE
4.1 Poor Management of Electoral Process and Elections by the Independent
National Electoral Commission (INEC)…………………………..…….38
4.2 The Inadequacy and the Inability of the Law Enforcement Agents to
provide Security during Elections …………………………………..…..41
4.3 Scramble for State Resources and Electoral Violence…..…………….43
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary ……………………………………………………..……………50
5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………..…………….51
5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………….………….52
BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………….……….………55

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