The need to rid the world of weapons of mass destruction and to save the future generations from the horrors the 2nd and third World War which led to the quest for nuclear disarmament and the growing threats of nuclear proliferation. This work investigated the link between the establishment of the African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone and the Security of Africa in the 21st Century. While observing that Africa had been a hotbed of clandestine conflict and competition that is necessitated by both internal and external factors, such that the region due to its mixture of African and Arab population when combined with its unenviable colonial legacy and superpower politics that occupies strategic position in global security calculus in addition to the growing threat of organized crimes and terrorist activities. The combined theories of Systems and National Interest theory were used as our framework of the African Union to regulate and outlaw the development use of nuclear weapons in the African continent through the signing and ratification of the treaty of Pelindaba Data for the study was gathered through secondary sources like books, journals articles etc. our method of data analysis which involved giving a qualitative
description to quantitative information brings simplicity and coherence to our work. We observed that the security of the continent will be secured under the framework of the ANWFZ. Our recommendation was also anchored on the findings of our research work which was clearly articulated in our conclusion. Some of our recommendations include: addressing the challenges of securing nuclear materials in Africa must take into account the local context; experiences of states in North Africa are distinct from the sub-Sahara Africa and so sub-regional dynamics should be put into account. Again, effort should be made to protect nuclear materials from falling into the hands of criminals or terrorists. African states should participate in the implementation of international nuclear security agreement for security and socio-economic development.