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Abstract

The persistent and consistent trend in the U.S. peace mediation in Africa has been chiefly characterized by the U.S. economic interests in Africa. Hence, it has always followed the consistent trend of who gets what, when and how, at the expense of the harangued and impoverished African masses. It is also observed that the interest of America in conflict resolution in the war torn regions of Africa is made expedient in order to safe-guard U.S. nationals in the region, and to protect their investments from destruction. Hence, economic considerations are placed over human and corporate existence and survival of Africans. Premised on these assertions therefore, this study sets out to investigate the dynamics of U.S involvements at peace mediation in Africa, and the Nigeria civil war in particular. As an instrument of political enquiry, this discourse employs the Marxian political economy paradigm, which investigates the super-positioning of the social substructure (economy) over the super-structure (politics, etc). Hence we arrived at the conclusion that America’s interest in Africa, and her involvements at peace mediation and
conflict resolutions are informed by her economic interests in Africa. As a method of data collection, we employed the observation method of the political enquiry. We made use of already existing materials, such as documents, textbooks, internet materials, etc, as our secondary sources of information.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ————————————————————————————- i
Approval page —————————————————————————- ii
Dedication ————————————————————————————- iii

Acknowledgement —————————————————————————- iv
List of Figures ————————————————————————————- v
List of Tables ————————————————————————————- vi
List of Maps ————————————————————————————- vii
Acronyms ————————————————————————————- viii
Abstract ————————————————————————————- ix
Table of contents —————————————————————————- x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ———————————————————– 1
1.1 Background of the Study ———————————————————– 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ———————————————————– 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study ———————————————————– 5
1.4 Significance of the Study ———————————————————– 5
1.5 Literature Review ———————————————————– 7
1.6 Theoretical Framework ———————————————————– 16
1.7 Hypotheses ———————————————————– 18
1.8 Method of Data Collection ———————————————————– 18
1.9 Method of Data Analysis ———————————————————– 19
CHAPTER TWO: U.S. – AFRICA RELATIONS —————————————– 20
2.1 The Era of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade —————————————– 21
2.2 The Colonial Era ———————————————————– 24
2.3 The Cold War Era ———————————————————– 26
2.4 The Post-Cold War Era ———————————————————– 27
2.5 U.S. – Africa Foreign Policies ———————————————————– 28
2.6 U.S. Strategic Interests in Africa ———————————————————– 43
2.7 U.S. Foreign Aid and Assistance to Africa———————————————— 55
CHAPTER THREE: U.S. – AFRICA PEACE MEDIATION —————————— 57
3.1 Instability and Political Crises in Africa ————————————————– 59
3.2 The Congo Crisis (1960 – 1964) ———————————————————– 65
3.3 The War in Somalia (1991 – 1993) ——————————————————— 68
3.4 The War in Angola (1975 – 2002) ———————————————————- 70
3.5 The Rwanda Crisis (1993 – 1996) ———————————————————- 74
3.6 The War in Sudan (1983 – 2005) ———————————————————– 79

CHAPTER FOUR: U.S. AND THE NIGERIA-BIAFRA CIVIL WAR (1967- 1970) 81
4.1 Hostilities Commence ———————————————————– 83
4.2 The foreign Interventions ———————————————————– 85
4.3 The America Intervention ———————————————————– 88
4.4 The End of the War ———————————————————– 97
4.5 The Lessons ———————————————————– 98
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION————————————— 102
5.1 Summary and Conclusion ———————————————————– 102
5.2 Recommendations ———————————————————– 106
BIBLIOGRAPHY ———————————————————– 108

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