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ABSTRACT

The dynamics and manifestation of Niger-Delta militancy is rooted in long years of neglect marginalization, poverty and underdevelopment of the region by the Nigerian state and Multi-National-Corporations. Therefore this study interrogated the nexus between frustration/aggression theory and militancy in the Niger-Delta. It noted like in previous studies that frustration over long years of misery, poverty, unemployment, environmental pollution in the Niger-Delta transmogrified into aggression in the form of kidnapping, piracy, destruction of oil installations among others by youth of the region. However, the study went beyond examining frustration/ aggression theory as an explanatory tool for militancy in the Niger-Delta but analyzed if the basic assumptions of the theory can serve as a framework for curtailing or eliminating militancy in the region. The study made use of ex-post factor research design, qualitative descriptive method of data analysis and adopted frustration/aggression theory as it theoretical framework. The study noted that lack of basic amenities, high level of poverty and unemployment over the years have resulted into frustration which conduced violent aggression. Also the study showed that state policies can reduced belligerency in the Niger-Delta region if it is focused on reducing/eliminating sources of frustration, and that Multi-National Corporation can genuinely foster local development or else they become target of deferred aggression. It recommended among others, the formulation and implementation of state policies that can check mate or reduce the sources of frustration which can curtail violence, improvement in the level of governance in the region and that Multi-National Corporations should through it social corporate responsibility provide social services to their host communities.

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study
Crisis is a feature of every society and this exist in multiple forms and dimensions across the globe. In Nigeria, it is not a new phenomenon because the history of Nigeria is blighted by ferocious crisis before and after her independence. These crisis are of varying degrees, durations, and intensities, they are equally multi-dimensional and include historical animosities and colonial legacies over issues of ethnicity, religious, regional/state divisions, indigene/settler, fears of domination/marginalization, revenue allocation formular and more importantly struggles over resource control (Olusapo, 2013). To be specific, the Nigeria state have witnessed variants of ethno-religious, economic and political crises such as Kano Riot of 1953, Census Crisis of 1962, Action Group Crisis of 1962/63, Federal Election Crisis of 1964, Coups and Counter Coups, the Civil War of 1967-1970, June 12 political crisis of 1993, Niger-Delta militancy and Boko Haram crisis (Ajodo & Aju, 2014).
To be exact, the dynamics and manifestations of Niger-Delta Militancy makes it peculiar given it rootedness in the exploration, production and control of crude oil which is the main stay of the Nigerian economy. As noted by Paki & Ebienfa (2013), the Niger-Delta region is the center of oil and gas production in Nigeria, accounting for about 80% of total Government Revenue, 95% of Foreign Exchange and over 80% of National Wealth. A delta as a term is used to describe an area cris- crossed by rivers, rivulets and creeks, which empty themselves into the sea. The Niger-Delta of Nigeria is among the richest deltas in the world. Other major deltas in the world are Amazon in Brazil, Orinoco in Venezuela, Mississippi in the U.S.A., Mahajan in Indonesia, Indus in Pakistan, Ganges in Bangladesh, Mekong in Vietna. The Niger-Delta which derives its name from the River Niger, is one of the world largest wetlands and Africa’s largest Delta covering some 70, 000km was formed by the accumulation of sedimentary deposits,
transported by the Niger and Benue Rivers (Paki & Ebienfa, 2013).

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