THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE LIBYAN CRISIS

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ABSTRACT

There has been an increase in the number of intrastate armed conflicts across the world in the last two decades and this has no doubt generated lots of debates as to whether the international community has a right or an obligation to interfere in the domestic affairs of any state. This has brought into focus the issue of the limits of sovereignty and the justification for external interference in intra-state conflicts. This study focused on the uprising that took place in Libya in 2011. In exploring the perimeters to which sovereignty can be exercised in intrastate armed conflicts, the study also investigated how changing political realities and international norms enabled external interventions that were previously unthinkable. Therefore, it tends to justify the coalition intervention in Libya on the basis of the international community’s responsibility and stated commitment to protect civilians in any part of the world from mass atrocities. However, the manner of the engagement by the US and NATO led external forces in the fight for regime change in Libya leaves much to be desired. Even- though the intervention in Libya received the blessing of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), a body so authorized to do so, controversy continues to trail the manner of its implementation. The doctrine of The Responsibility to Protect as propounded by Kofi Annan was used as a
framework for analysis of this study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – – 7
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 8
1.5 Literature Review – – – – – – – – 9
1.6 Theoretical Framework – – – – – – – 49
1.7 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 55
1.8 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – 56
1.8.1 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 59
1.8.2 Research Design – – – – – – – 61
CHAPTER TWO: Genesis of the Libyan Crisis
2.1 Gaddafi’s Ascension to Power – – – – – – 63
2.2 Gaddafi’s Governance Style – – – – – – 65
2.3 Libyan Economy Under Gaddafi’s Regime – – – – 67
2.4 The 2011 Civil war and Collapse of Gaddafi’s Government – – 69
2.5 Libya Crisis Time Line – – – – – – – 70
CHAPTER THREE: Foreign Interests and Interventions in Libyan Crisis
3.1 Economic Interests: Libyan Resources and foreign Interests – – 72
3.2 United States Oil Interests in Libya – – – – – 75
3.3 The United States-Gaddafi Fallout – – – – – 78
CHAPTER FOUR: United Nations’ Responses to the Libyan Crisis
4.1 The Authorization of UN Resolution 1973 on Libya – – – 81
4.2 Regional Efforts: The African Union Response – – – – 84
4.3 Commencement of the NATO’s Military Operations in Libya – – 87
4.4 Failure of UN- Sanctioned NATO Forces in Protecting Libyan
Civilian Population – – – – – – – 92
4.5 The Extra-Judicial Killing of Muammar Gaddafi – – – 94
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 96
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 97
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 103
Bibliography – – – – – – – – 107

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