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ABSTRACT


The global nature of climate has become very well appreciated in the developing as well as
developed world. For example, in its recent Summit in Gleneagles, Scotland, in the United
Kingdom, the leaders of the G8 nations very significantly remarked that climate changed is
happening now, that human activity is contributing to it, and that it could affect every part of the
globe. In its resolutions, the G8 leaders noted thus “The Gleneagles plan of Action which we
have agreed demonstrates our commitment. We will take measure to develop markets for clean
energy technologies, to increase their availability in development countries, and to help
vulnerable communities adapt to the impact of climate change.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Statutes – – – – – – – – – ix
Table of Abbreviations – – – – – – – – x
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 8
1.3 Justification – – – – – – – – – 9
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 9
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Research – – – – – 10
1.6 Research Methodology – – – – – – – 10
1.7 Literature Review – – – – – – – – 10
1.8 Organisational Layout – – – – – – – 12
CHAPTER TWO: THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
2.1 Negotiations – – – – – – – – – 13
2.2 Commitments – – – – – – – – – 14
2.3 The Three Flexible Mechanism under Kyoto Protocol – – – 15

2.4 The Joint Implementation – – – – – – – 15
2.5 Clean Development Mechanism – – – – – – 16
2.6 Emission Trading – – – – – – – – 17
2.7 The Potential Legal Challenges and Uncertainty under Kyoto Protocol – 17
2.8 The Essence of the Kyoto Protocol – – – – – – 19
CHAPTER THREE: EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CHALLENGES OF THE
IMPLIMENTATION OF KYOTO PROTOCOL IN NIGERIA
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 21
3.2 Evidence of Climate Change in Nigeria – – – – – 22
3.3 Environmental Implications – – – – – – – 23
3.4 Threat to the Coastal Region – – – – – – – 24
3.5 Heightening of Drought and Desertification – – – – – 25
3.6 Threat to Water Resources – – – – – – – 26
3.7 Threat to Food Security and Livelihoods – – – – – 26
3.8 Threat to Energy, Industry and Transport Sectors – – – – 27
3.8 The Challenges of CDM Implementation and Development in Nigeria – 29
3.9 Complexity of Emission Trading Mechanism – – – – 34
3.10 Kyoto Protocol and its Economic Impacts – – – – – 37
CHAPTER FOUR: ADAPTATION AND NATIONAL MEASURES FOR CONTROL OF
CLIMATECHANGE
4.1 The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) – 41
4.2 The Kyoto Protocol – – – – – – – – 43
4.3 Bali Action Plan – – – – – – – – 46

4.4 Ponzan Conference 2008 – – – – – – – 48
4.5 The Copenhagen Conference 2009 – – – – – – 50
4.6 Nigeria‟s Commitments on Climate Change Agreements – – – 57
4.7 Challenges and Constraint of Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change
Adaptation and Means of implementation – – – – – 61
4.8 The Role of Law in Implementing an Effective Regulatory Scheme – 65
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Findings – – – – – – – – – 70
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – – – 71
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 74
Bibliography – – – – – – – – – 76

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