AN ASSESSMENT OF LANDUSE PRACTICES INDUCING SEDIMENTATION IN KUSALLA RESERVOIR, KARAYE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE NORTH WEST NIGERIA.

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to improve the productivity of the Kusalla reservoir towards a sustainable domestic water supply and irrigation activities in the area. The aim of this study is to assess the level of sedimentation in the reservoir, and this was achieved by determining the current depth of the reservoir, the characterization of the land use within the catchment area of the reservoir as well as the effect of landuse changes on the sedimentation rate of the reservoir. The reservoir is located in karaye local government of kano state of Nigeria. The Level of sedimentation of the reservoir was determined by carrying out depth measurement of the reservoir from the surface to its bed during the dry season of 2011. The result obtained shows the reservoir has loss. 7.74 m depth to sedimentation, indicating 50.79% loss in installed capacity to characterize land uses changes over the catchment of Kusalla reservoir satellite imageries including lansat M.S.S 32 m resolution for 1970’s, 1980’s, 1990’s, and 2000’s were obtained and analyzed using G.I.S procedures. From the analyses of the satellite imageries, the result reveal that cultivated area increased from5662.71Hectare to10750.05Hectares; built-up area from 23.85Hectare to 654.66Hectare, from 1970’s to 2000’s respectively while water body show a reduction of 132.48 Hectare to 88.02 Hectares, bareland 3272.94 Hectares to 588.96 Hectares and vegetation from 3670.38Hectares to 725.67 Hectares from 1970’s to 2000’s respectively. The statistical analysis reveals a significant relationship between land use changes and sedimentation rate of the reservoir. The depletion of storage capacity has implication for future water supply to the resident of Karaye Getso, Dederi and Gwarzo.Watershed management,dredging and proper project monitoring among others was recommended.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – – I
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – II
Certification – – – – – – – – – – III
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – IV
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – – V
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – VII
Table of Content – – – – – – – – – VIII
List of tables – – – – – – – – – – XI
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – XII
List of Plates – – – – – – – – – – XIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem – – – – — – 4
1.3 Aim and Objectives – – – – – — – – 7
1.4 Study Hypothesis – – – – – – – – 7
1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – – – 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Concept of Sediment Development – – – – – – 9
2.2 Factors affecting Sediment Development – – – – – 11
2.2.1 Rainfall and Temperature – – – – – – – 11
2.2.2 Relief – – – – – – – – – – 12
2.2.3 Geology – – – – – – – – – 13
2.2.4 Soil – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.2.5 Vegetation – – – – – – – – – 14
2.2.6 Time – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.2.7 Land use – – – – – – – – – 16
2.3 Sediment characteristic/Properties – – – – – – 18
2.4 The role of Sediment Generation on Lake Sedimentation – – – 23
2.5 Previous Studies on Sedimentation – – – – – – 24
2.6 Method and Techniques of Measuring lake sedimentation – – – 26
2.6.1 Traditional Approach for Sedimentation Analysis
(Range/End area method) – – – – – – – 26
2.6.2 Digital Terrain Model (D.T.M) Method – – – – – 27
2.6.3 Conventional Technique of Lake Depth Measurement – – – 27
2.7 RS and GIS in land use land cover (LULC) change detection – – – 28
CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 The Study Area – – – – – – – – 34
3.1.1 Location and size – – – – — – – – 34
3.1.2 Population – – – – – – – – – 37
3.1.3 Drainage – – – – – – – – – 37
3.1.4 Climate and Vegetation – – – – – – – 38
3.1.5 Geology of the Study Area – – – – – – – 39
3.1.6 Soil – – – – – – – – – – 40
3.1.7 Hydrology – – – – – – – – – 41
3.2 Methodology – – – – – – – – – 43
3.2.1 Types of Data Collected – – – – – – – 43
3.2.2 Methods of Data Collection – – – – – – – 43
3.2.2.1 Data Collection on Depth of Reservoir at Construction (1973)- – – – 43
3.2.2.2 Current Depth of the Lake 2011- – – – – – – 43
3.3 Land use/Land Cover Change Detection – – – – – – 46
3.3.1 Image Pre- processing – – — – – – – – 46
3.3.2 Image Classification – – – – – – – – – – – 46
3.4 Instrumentation and software used – – – – – – – – 48
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Character of the Kusalla Reservoir in 1973 (Year of Construction) — – 50
4.2 Current depth of the reservoir- – – – – – -52
4.3 Lake sedimentation- – – – – – – – – 54
4.4 Land use characterization- – – – – – — – 54
4.4.1 Land use/Land Cover Character of the Kusalla Reservoir in 1970s- – – – – – – 55
4.4.2 Land use/Land Cover Character of the Kusalla Reservoir in 1980s – – – – – – – 58
4.4.3 Land use/Land Cover Character of the Kusalla Reservoir in 1990s – – – – – – 61
4.4.4 Land use/Land Cover Character of the Kusalla Reservoir in 2000s – – – – – – 64xi
4.5 Land Use/Land Cover Changes from 1970s to 2000s- – – – – – 66
4.6 Land Use/Land Cover Trend from 1970s to 2000s- – – – – -68
4.7 Effect of Land Use Changes on the Sediment Rate of the Reservoir – – – 69
CHAPTER FIVE:- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – -74
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – -75
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – -76
5.4 References – – – – – – – – – – -78

 

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