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Waste is the greatest danger facing mankind today therefore measures must be nationally and internationally taken to control disposal of such waste to save and provide a safer, sound and good environment. Due to the damaging effect of waste to both human beings and environment, legal machinery needs to be put in place to cater for the environment. Constitutionally the issue of making laws to cater for legal and institutional framework for waste management in Nigeria falls within concurrent legislative list empowering both the Federal and state governments to make laws on it. This research entitled “An Appraisal of Legal and Institutional Framework for Waste Management in Kano State has been embarked upon with sole aim of studying and analyzing the laws and institutions of Kano State and Federation on waste management with a bid to identify the problems and prospects. The research has discussed the conceptual clarification of key terms and equally provided analysis of legal framework for waste management. The work also considered institutions responsible for waste management in Kano State. So many problems associated with the institutions have been critically analyzed and the prospects thereof have elaborately highlighted. The method adopted was doctrinal i.e library-oriented. The scope of the research was largely the basic laws relating to environmental issues affecting waste management in Kano State. At the end of the work, finding in relations to waste management in Kano State have been made out. The research finally provides some recommendations in order to achieve the desired goal of a safer, sound and good environment.

Title Page- – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration- – – – – – – – — ii
Certification – – – — – – – – iii
Dedication– – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – vi
Table of Content – – – – – – –
1.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Research Problems- – – – 2
1.3 Justification for the research– – – – – 3
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the research – – – 3
1.5 Scope of the Research- – – – – – 4
1.6 Methodology of the Research – – – – – 4
1.7 Literature Review- – – – – – – 5
1.8 Organizational Layout— – – – – 9
2.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – 11
2.2 Nature and scope of the Environment- – – – 11

2.3 Nature and scope of the Environmental Law – – – 15
2.4 Waste- – – – – – – – – 18
2.5 Waste Management- – – – – – – 20
2.6 Hazardous Waste/Substance- – – – – 22
2.7 Non-Hazardous Waste/Substance- – – – 24
2.8 Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment- – – 24
2.9 Method of Waste Management- – – – – 25
3.1 Introduction- – – – – – – – 27
3.2 Legal Framework for the Environmental and Waste Management in
Nigeria- – – – – – – – – 28
4.1 Refuse Management and Sanitation Board- – 46
4.2 Operational Framework of the Refuse Management and Sanitation
Board- – – – – – – – – 50
4.3 Kano State Urban Planning and Development Authority 55

5.1 Summary- – – – – – – – – 60
5.2 Findings- – – – – – – – – 62
5.3 Recommendations- – – – – – – 65



1.1 Introduction

At the heart of environmental concerns for every state and nation is the problem of waste and its management. Disposal and management of waste be hazardous or non-hazardous presents serious environmental problem. The problem is due to the lack of adequate resources namely: legal, financial, technology and manpower.
An effective waste management as a means of protecting environment under environmental law needs adequate legal regime, technology and enough manpower with necessary managerial skills and training to properly handle waste, hazardous and non-hazardous in an environmentally safe and sound manner.
The modern industry has come along with it the problem of hazardous waste. Having to use raw materials to produce goods, modern industries end up with hazardous waste which could either be toxic or radioactive. Communities in urban areas, settlements in rural areas and villages, markets, commercial places, schools, houses and institutions have now become a source of waste and there is always the problem of how to manage and dispose of them without
either harming the human environment or the environment of animals and plants.
Waste management is the generic expression that covers the various stages involved in the handling of waste. The collection, treatment, storage and disposal of waste are various stages of waste management. For every state law exist to provide a legal framework for the management of waste at that state.
This forms the background study on the appraisal of the legal and institutional framework for waste management in Kano State.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.
The research seeks to examine the legal and institutional framework for waste management with particular reference to Kano State. Kano State now is facing serious problems and challenges with the issue of waste management. There is almost everywhere in the state dumps sites, land spread, water disposal and incineration and some numbers of land fillings particularly outside town and each of these have serious environmental defects/impacts.

The legal and institutional framework setup for the management of waste in the state are not enough. The principal law enacted to regulate waste management  in the state recognized only waste to be refuse of solid nature2leaving the otherkind of waste which could be liquid in nature. Therefore, the research aims at determining efficacies and deficiencies in providing for an adequate environmental protection to the population of Kano  state at large. Generally, the research is meant to study all environmental issues that affect waste management in Kano State.

1.3 Justification for the Research
The need to understand the basic laws and regulations governing environmental protection particularly as it relates to waste management in Kano state makes this research significant and justifiable. The serious danger which these waste either hazardous or non-hazardous posed to the communities
in Kano State easily justifies the need to research in this area. It will also be useful to environmentalists, environmental litigants to seek redress in courts for any grievances suffered due to poor management of waste.

1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Research
The main objective of this research is to review the legal and institutional framework on waste management in Kano State with a view to bring out the shortcomings of the law in the area and make laudable recommendations that will impact positive improvement in the laws enacted for the protection of theenvironment particularly in Kano State.
Kano state government and its population will benefit from the efforts which  the researcher harnessed and presented in a coherent whole.

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