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Technology has pervaded all spheres of human endeavor and organizations. With the internet, the whole world has now become a global village. Against this background, this study interrogates the application of MIS in human resource development in Enugu State Civil Service. However, the researcher adopted system theory as the theoretical framework. The reason for adopting this theory hinges on the fact that man lives in a world of continuing changes thus, technological tradition has not only bred the system analytic approach to planning, but also underlined the system dynamics for different phenomena. The
internet complexity views them as inter-linked, interacted and integrated.
The findings reveal that Enugu State Civil Service has not put in use management information system thereby creating a lot of gap in application in management information system in the civil Service system. Also, the survey research design was adopted for this study because it deals with the practical application of already standardized theories available social sciences.
To adequately use this research work effectively, the research has made some recommendations on the way forward for improvement in service delivery particularly in Enugu State Civil service.
2.1 Background Of The Study
The issue of theory building within human resource development (HRD) has received less systematic attention in research literature compared to general human resource management (HRM). Specifically, over the past decade a rather small number of authors, such as Swanson & Holton (1997), Torraco (1997; 2004), Hansen (1998), Chalofsky (1998), Weinberger (1998), Sawson (1998), Hatcher (1999), Lynham (2000), Turnbull (2002), Kuchinke (2003), and Lynham, Chermack, & Noggle (2004), turned their attention to theory building. However, although HRD theory building is essential for advancing the relatively young HRD profession (Lynham, 2000; Holton, 2002; Hardre, 2003), the issue of variation in HRD strategies has received even less attention in the research literature (Kuchinke, 2003).
Business strategies (Horwitz, 1999), firm size and industry (Swanson & Holton,
2001), staffing strategies that have an impact on training strategies (Raghuram,
1994; Noe, 2002), culture of organization (Baldwing & Danielson, 2002) may
considered to be some variation items in HRD.
Within the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm, which advocates that an
organisation can gain competitive advantage by attracting and retaining best human resources, universalistic and contingency HRM-performance linkage models have been either theoretically or empirically developed. The universalistic model suggests that a specified set of HR practices (the so called “best practices”) will always produce superior business results whatever the accompanying circumstances. The contingency model argues that an organisation’s set of HRM policies and practices will be effective if it is consistent with other organisational strategies. However, there is no consensus amongst researchers regarding which model is the predominant one (Wood, 1999).
With respect to the HRD-performance linkage model building literature, although
Wimbiscus (1995) supports the view that HRD lacks a unifying model that may be used to understand HRD issues, most current HRD models are following the
universalistic rather than the contingency perspective (Kuchinke, 2003). Training
(Holton & Naquin, 2005) and employability (Garavan, McGuire & O’Donnell, 2004) are assumed to be the basic components for people to acquire competencies that in turn will significantly improve organizational performance. However, there is a small number of authors, most notably Snell, Lepak, & Youndt (1999), who advocate that investment in human resources may be contingent on the specific characteristics and contribution of groups of employees to the organization. More recently, Mabey & Gooderham (2005) and Mabey & Ramirez (2005) in examining the impact of management development on organizational performance in six European firms found that contextual factors like sales turnover, size and country explained some of the variance in perceptions of organizational performance.
In analysing the impact of HRM on organisational performance each of the HRM performance linkage models developed complements the others by adding constructs, variables or relationships (Alcazar, Fernandez, & Gardey, 2005). A
serious limitation that recent reviews of the literature points out is that the link
between HRM and business performance is considered like a ‘black box’, i.e., lack ofclarity regarding ‘what exactly leads to what’ (Gerhart, 2005; Alcazar et al., 2005). In empirically investigating these models most studies were based on cross-sectional data and the analysis employed was either ‘hierarchical regression models’ or ‘competing regression models’ without proving causality. Thus, Becker and Gerhart (1996) and Fey, Bjorkman & Pavlovskaya (2000) exhorted researchers to use ‘structural equation modelling’ (SEM) to illuminate the ‘black box’ (Wright, Gardner, & Moynihan, 2003) between HRM systems and organisational performance. This is because the use of SEM is particularly appropriate when testing direct and indirect relationships between HRM policies and organisational performance and when testing theoretically derived paths among various exogenous and endogenous variables.
The same picture holds for the HRD-performance linkage models, where the contributions in HRD literature remain in most cases descriptive or prescriptive (Ellinger, Ellinger, Yang, & Howton, 2002). Despite the fact that training is expanding, it still remains concern over the contribution of training to organizational performance (Bartlett, 2001). Empirical work in this area is lacking and according to Garavan, Gunnigle & Morley (2000) there are no models yet that properly evaluate the extent to which HRD improves performance. In fact there is little empirical support indicating that HRD positively affects organizational performance (Torraco, 1999; Bartlett, 2001). However, applying SEM, Tracey, Hinkin, Tannenbaum, & Mathieu (2001) found that training outcomes are related with pre-training context, and are mediated by self-efficacy and motivation. Moreover, Mabey & Gooderham (2005) and Mabey & Ramirez (2005) sustain that organizational fit mediates strategic fit and perceptions of the importance given to management development, which subsequently determines improved organizational performance. Similarly, Lopez, Peon, & Ordas (2005) support the view that organizational learning mediates the relationship between HR practices and business performance. Specifically, by using SEM they found that HR practices have a positive impact on organizational learning, which in turn has a positive effect on business performance.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The role of information in decision making cannot be overemphasized. Effective
decision making demands accurate, timely and relevant information. According to Aminu (1986), information resource is one of the major issues and indices of
organizational planning. Where the relevant information required for planning are not available at the appropriate time, there is bound to be poor planning, inappropriate decision making, poor priority of needs, defective programming or scheduling of activities. Hence, the Enugu State Civil Service system will not be efficient and effective without the application of Management Information System in operation.
Poor management information system has been identified as a bottleneck in the
successful management of Civil Service in Nigeria (NUC, 1987). The more complex an organization’s structure is, the greater the need for coordination within. However, central to the needed coordination is information. This view is buttressed by Murdick and Ross (1971), when they opined that: Information is absolutely essential to the survival of an organization. As organisations grow, the pressure of scale, complexity and an increased rate of change make adequate information processing capacity inevitable, if effective control, consequent upon coordination of individual activities is to be achieved. Thus, the information needed for effective decision making in Enugu State cannot be provided from people’s often-deficient memories. Moreover, it is impossible to plan activities over a long period of time effectively without effective information. Information is supposed to be created through the discipline of enquiry and research with peer moderation to ensure validity and societal influence. This study arises from the need for Enugu State Civil Service to update its levels of performance, through the efficient and effective application of management information system to human resource management. The millennium bug, which was due to a defect in the computer’s dating system, generated panic waves throughout the world in 1999. Rightly, we are now in an era where the success or failure of any enterprise is hinged on the amount of information at its disposal and how properly this information is manipulated, stored and transmitted.
Thus, in the present dispensation, progressive organizations in both the public and private sectors have recognized the pivotal role information technology plays in their operational efficiency, and also, in the optimal deployment, management and utilization of their human resource. So far, no study known to the author has existed on the subject matter of this research in Enugu State Civil service. This study therefore, interrogates the application of management information system in human resources management in Enugu State Civil Service and it attempts to provide answer to the following research questions:
(1) To what degree is management information system being customize to fit in the current challenges in Enugu State civil service?
(2) Do Enugu State Civil Servants possess the necessary computer literate skills?
1.3 Objectives of The Study
The broad objective of this study is to interrogate the extent of the effect of management information system in Enugu State Civil Service. The specific objectives are as follows:
(a) To determine the extent to which the civil service in Enugu State has put in
place a formalized Human Resource Management Information System.
(b) To ascertain the skill and proficiency level of the operators in relation to modern information management system.
© To determine the level of sophiscation of the information system in use.
(d) To identify the various aspects of human resource functions that is being supported by the human resource management information system in Enugu State civil service.
1.4 Significance of The Study.
The study has both theoretical and practical significance; theoretically, the study tries to contribute to the understanding of the impact of Management Information System and its application towards the attainment of a high level performance in Enugu State.
Secondly, considering the enormous challenges in the present age, this study will create an insight about the relevance of management information system to human resource in Enugu State Civil service and the need to encourage civil service to put it in use in its various ministries.
However, the study will of great importance to both the policy makers, Enugu State Civil service and the staff in general to the extent that it will motivate the workers and help the policy makers in organizational planning and operation and also seek practical ways of making sure that every staff participate in this training which will consequently be translated into higher level performance.
Finally, the work will be of colossal help to the general public, since this is the age of information system in the globe.
1.5 Scope And Limitations Of The Study.
This study represents a bold attempt to ascertain the level of use and sophistication of the computer-based information system in the Enugu state Civil Service a study of ministry of education. To ensure an in-depth study, this work only covered one establishments in Enugu State Civil Service. These establishments or Ministries is ministry of education. Also, the population of study did not include all the staff in these Ministries. The respondents were drawn from the senior officers of the ministry because of their strategic role in human resource development.
More so, this research encountered some limitations in the course of its execution and completion. In the first instance, the researcher would have included the entire State Ministries in Enugu State but the time and resources available for the completion of the study limited the researcher to one Ministries or establishments. Thus, generalization of this research finding outside the confine of Enugu State may not be proper.
In addition, obtaining data and information from the respondents was not an easy
task. This is due to the bureaucratic processes in Nigeria Civil Service. There was
apathy from the respondents who saw the research effort as purely an academic
enterprise that will not change the status quo. Finally, the dearth of literature on
information systems in Nigeria was another huddle that confronted the researcher.