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ABSTRACT

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This dissertation is a Comparative Legal Analysis of Bilateral Air Service Agreements between Nigeria and Some Selected Countries. The countries considered here are Ghana, United Kingdom and Israel. The development of an international aviation industry has resulted in bilateral agreements playing an increasingly significant role as instruments of negotiation and cooperation between and among States parties. Before an airline can operate international air service to another country, the government must negotiate with the destination country‟s government. This is done under the terms of a bilateral air service agreement. To analyze the selected Air Service Agreements, this research adopts the doctrinal method and the empirical method. It starts with the writers attempt to give a foundation of bilateral air service agreements. There is also an attempt to trace the history of global bilateral air service arrangement. Then, the writer discussed the legal regulatory framework within which the air transport industry work in Nigeria.The ICAO standard format bilateral air service agreement covers such items as traffic rights, capacity, tariffs, designation, ownership and control etc. The research treats these terms in the context of Nigerian bilateral air service agreements with the above mentioned countries. Findings among others in the research revealed that Nigeria lacks a national air carrier or strong indigenous airline to operate the Nigerian side of the Agreement on designation. It is recommended among others that these terms should be defined by way of review of the said Agreements so as to avoid any dispute of interpretation. Nigerian should be more serious and more committed in its investment on the Nations aviation industry. A sound national air carrier should be established and the hitherto dilapidated aviation-related facilities should be fixed. This will enable the national air carriers to effectively operate the Nigerian side of its Bilateral Air Service Agreements on designation. The dissertation contains more revelations.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
Cover Page——————————————————————————– i
Title Page ———————————————————————————- ii
Declaration ——————————————————————————– iii
Certification ——————————————————————————- iv
Dedication ——————————————————————————— v
Acknowledgement ———————————————————————– vi
Table of Statutes ————————————————————————- viii
Table of Abbreviations —————————————————————— x
Table of Cases —————————————————————————- xii
Abstract ———————————————————————————— xiii
Table of Content ————————————————————————- xiv
Chapter One
General Introduction
1.1 Background to the Research —————————————————– 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem ————————————————- 5
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research ——————————————– 6
1.4 Justification for the Research —————————————————– 7
1.5 Scope of the Research ————————————————————- 7
1.6 Research Methodology ———————————————————— 8
1.7 Literature Review ——————————————————————-8
1.8 Organizational Structure of the Research ————————————– 15
Chapter Two
The Development of Legal Policy and Institutional Framework
ForAir Transport Industry in Nigeria
2.1 Introduction ————————————————————————- 17
2.2 History of the Aviation Industry in Nigeria ———————————— 17
2.3 Legal Regulation of Air Transport Industry in Nigeria ———————– 28
2.3.1 International Regulation ———————————————————– 28
2.3.2 National Regulation —————————————————————– 31
2.4 Aviation Regulatory Agencies in Nigeria —————————————- 41
2.4.1 International Regulating Bodies ————————————————– 41
2.4.2 National Regulating Bodies ——————————————————– 43
Chapter Three
The Evolution and Nature of Bilateral Air Service Agreements
3.1 Introduction ————————————————————————— 53
3.2 Overview of Bilateral Air Service Agreements ———————————– 54
3.3 Historical Evolution of Bilateral Air Service Agreements ———————- 59
3.4 Structure of Bilateral Air Service Agreements ———————————— 72
3.5 Types of Bilateral Air Service Agreements —————————————- 73
3.6 The Making and Implementation of Bilateral Air Service
Agreements in Nigeria —————————————————————-79
3.6.1 Constitutional Background ———————————————————-79
3.6.2 The Process of Making Bilateral Air Service Agreements ———————- 83
3.6.3 Conclusion of Bilateral Air Service Agreements ———————————-87
3.6.4 Enforcement of Bilateral Air Service Agreements ——————————-88
Chapter Four
Bilateral Air Service Agreements between Nigeria and Some Selected Countries: Ghana, United Kingdom and Israel
4.1 Introduction —————————————————————————- 91
4.2 Analysis of Major Clauses in the Bilateral Air Service Agreements
Between Nigeria and Ghana, United Kingdom, and Israel ——————- 92
4.2.1 Preamble Clause ———————————————————————– 92
4.2.2 Definition/Interpretation Clause —————————————————92
4.2.3 Grant of RightsClause ————————————————————– 93
4.2.4 Designation and Operating Authorization Clause —————————— 97
4.2.5 Revocation and Suspension of Rights Clause ———————————- 100
4.2.6 Certificate of Airworthiness and License Clause ——————————- 105
4.2.7 Security Clause ———————————————————————– 106
4.2.8 Safety Clause ————————————————————————– 108
4.2.9 Commercial Opportunities Clause ———————————————— 110
4.2.10 Operating PrinciplesClause ——————————————————- 111
4.2.11 Custom Duties Clause ————————————————————– 112
4.2.12 User Charges Clause —————————————————————- 113
4.2.13 Non-Discrimination Clause ——————————————————- 114
4.2.14 Capacity/Frequency Clause ——————————————————– 115
4.2.15 Tariff/Pricing Clause ————————————————————– 125
4.2.16 Dispute Resolution Clause ——————————————————- 128
4.2.17 Consultation Clause ————————————————————— 132
4.2.18 Amendments Clause ————————————————————– 133
4.2.19 Entry into Force Clause ———————————————————- 135
4.2.20 Termination Clause —————————————————————- 136
4.2.21Code Sharing Clause ————————————————————– 138
4.2.22 Other Clauses ———————————————————————- 141
4.3 Problems/Challenges Faced and Future Prospects —————————- 142
Chapter Five
Summary, Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion
5.1 Introduction ———————————————————————– 147
5.2 Summary ————————————————————————— 149
5.3 Findings —————————————————————————- 152
5.4 Recommendations —————————————————————- 157
5.5 Conclusion ————————————————————————- 159
Bibliography—————————————————————————– 161

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