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This Thesis explores human resources development and utilization, in Enugu State civil service,
an activity that has been neglected in the public sector. It presents answers to the following
questions. The intent is to provide a useful basis for change in the human resource management
culture in the civil service of Nigeria. The theoretical framework used in the study is Human
Relations Theory that are in line with human research development and utilization. Most
importantly, its objectives to the government agencies and organizations.
In pursue of the above goals of this study, the researcher distributed and administered
questionnaires to the employees of Enugu State Civil Service. The responses from the
questionnaires were analyzed using simple percentage and frequency tables for proper
clarification. From the analysis and interpretation of hypotheses, the researcher found out that
many problems/factors affected the human resources development and utilization in Enugu State
Civil Service such as: poor coordination among the agencies charged with the responsibility of
human resources development, incompetent professionals and corruption. Based on these
findings, the researcher has made the following recommendations.
1) The agencies charged with the responsibility of human resources planning must
continuously monitor and; evaluate outcomes from the services of workers in order
to know their level of performance/productivity, where changes should be made and
then plan better strategy for improving future performance. These are important
corrective measures. The purpose of evaluating a training programme is to
determine its effectiveness. A training programme is effective only if it has gathered
in the evaluation process will enable the civil service to improve on programme for
future trainees and also enable the trainers appraise themselves in terms of method
2) Another strategy for improving human resource development and utilization is by
providing the agencies involved in human resources development with sufficient fund
to make the process productive. This is because, every aspect of human resource
development requires fund. For example, the training and development of human
resources require money. Therefore, government should allocate sufficient fund to
Enugu State Civil Service to enable them plan effectively for their human resources
development, which in turn will improve the economy of the state.
3) Adequately equipped training centres and facilities should be provided across the
length and breadth of the country, so that different ministries should have easy
access to obtaining training when the need arises. To properly plan and utilize
human resources in Enugu State Civil Service, there should be provision for
adequate training facilities, which will be used in developing human resources for
productive services. There is no doubt that any training programmes is meaningful
only if it enables man to be of great service to his organization. Training has its
cardinal goals of creation of “behavioural change” in a desire direction as
organizational needs dictates. Knowledge and skills should be designed and
imparted on relevant employee(s) so as to affect a significant change in their job
behaviour. According to Chandan (2007), employee training should assume the
following specific form:
(a) Induction and orientation course
(b) On-the-job training
(c) Off-the-job training
(d) Vestibule training
(e) Regular refreshers course in form of seminars, workshops etc.
1.1 Background to the Study
The Human resources of an organization comprise of men and women, young and old who
engage in the production of goods and services and who are the greatest assets of the organization
(Ndiomu, cited in Ezeani, 2002:2). The people, in the words of Gant (1979, are the human
resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills which are germane
for effective and efficient planning and implementation of development policies, programmes,
projects, and daily activities. There is no doubt that the ability of any organization or society to achieve its goals depends to a large extent on the caliber, organization and motivation of its
human resources. As succinctly captured by Likert in Ezeani (2002:1).
All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up
that institution. Plant, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm
use are unproductive except for human effort and direction.
Similarly, Harbison cited in Ezeani (2002:1) opined that “human resources and not any other
constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations.” And according to Drucker (1978:273) “…
good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Human resources is as
a fact of life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man”.
However, these and such other statements by human resources management experts and
practitioners alike are pointers to the importance and critical role of the human element in
organization. Indeed, the human resources is a critical factor in the attainment of the goals of any
organization. The ability of the human resources to contribute to the attainment of the goals of an
organization such as the Local government depends to a great extent on how well they are
On the other hand, given the increasing volatile and complex socio-economic structure of our
business organization in Nigeria, two basic factors are crucial for business success: Capital and
Human Resources. According to Nwankwo (cited in Onah, 2007), every organization needs three
main resources to survive. They are: financial, material and human resources. An organization needs
money to pay it staff and to buy the essential materials or equipment for operations. Maximum
production of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are
available. Of course, there is no organization without human resources. Capital, whether acquired
through loans or from private sources, can be easier to manage and control, only when there is qualified and quality human resources. Even if an organization has got all the money and materials it
needs, it must still find capable people to put them into effective use. Organizations, whether public
or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower planning.
However, it is from the foregoing premise that the compelling need arises for manpower
planning and development as a sine-qua-non for enhanced productivity. Despite available
human/manpower, organizations in Nigeria have not been properly managed nor the available
human resources managed adequately. This calls for strategic ways of improving human
resource/manpower planning and its utilization to improve our economy. When organizations are not
proper managed and are not productive, the economy of the country will be badly affected.
Furthermore, according to the 1974 Udoji report (as quoted by Oshionebo, 2001), the public
service must be changed and strengthened to respond effectively to the demand of development.
They need qualified, skilled and motivated people at the right place and at the right time to achieve
objectives, to transfer paper plan into actual achievement of all aspect of personnel management.
It is pertinent to note that the civil service has continued to accord appreciable attention to
proper strategies for improving manpower planning and staff development. In the wake of the
professionalism introduced or reinforced by the 1988 Civil Service Reform, it was imperative for
very job incumbent (holder) to possess requisite knowledge, skill and attitudinal tendencies in
specific job activity in government service. Accordingly, we are told that in order to improve the
economy and efficiency and raise the performance standard of employers to the minimum possible
level of proficiency, ministries are to establish, operate and maintain programmes or plans for the
training of employees in or under their ministry (FRN 1988).
Government is also experiencing serious revenue shortfalls to meet its development
objectives. Staff rationalization and other downsizing and rightsizing measures have been the consequence of revenue shortfall in both public and private sector as well as across economic subsectors.
According to Banjiko (1996), Human resource/manpower planning, can therefore, be seen as
the overall organization planning process by which the organization tries to ensure that it has the
right number of persons and the right kind of people, at the right time and at the right place
performing functions which are economically useful and which satisfy the needs of the organization
and provide satisfaction for the individual involved.
Well, to have the right number and quality of people requires effective strategies for human
resource planning and sources managerial commitment. It is important for the following reasons:
First, for any organization to achieve a reasonable degree of success, it is
important neither to plan with excess or inadequate manpower. Human resources are
always costly to acquire and retain, thereby making it economically difficult to justify
keeping excess manpower. When we have excess employees, it can cause serious problem
and even redundancy for the organization. Also, the organization cannot keep or afford to
keep too few employees, as over-work by the available employees may retard work
progress and lead a lot of dysfunctional behaviour on the part of employees. Effective
strategic manpower planning and its utilization that takes into account the whole
arrangement of potential planning factor can help to determine the right quality and kind
of employees to keep.
Secondly effective strategies for improving manpower planning can be useful for stabilizing
Third, the need to cope with possible future changes and competitive forces in both product
and labour market, in technology and government regulatory requirement, call for a realistic and
effective manpower planning.
It is pertinent to note that the Nigerian public service is the highest employer of labour in
Nigeria. The civil service commission, both at the federal and state level, has the responsibility of
manpower recruitment, selection and employment. Government programme and projects are
becoming more complex and difficult, thus the necessity to plan manpower in order to meet
challenges. In order to undertake good strategy for improving manpower planning and utilization in
Enugu state civil service, government should, through its personnel managers, analyze from time to
time, the various positions available, anticipate expansion of service and take cognizance of some
factors that influence employment in the public sector. Such factors as quota system, political and
fiscal policies of government.
However, in the face of decreasing productivity in the public sector, the Obasanjo’s
administration in 2006, set up a body to reform the public sector/service, especially in the
employment of only qualified graduates. The Bureau for Public Service, head by Malam El-Rufai,
was empowered to revive the public service to ensure effectiveness. The reform led to the
retrenchment of about thirty thousand workers (unqualified, incompetent and dead wood) and the
employment, training and development of about one thousand, five hundred fresh graduates with
first class and second-class university degree.
In fact, the central focus of this study is to interrogate how manpower training and utilization
affects the Enugu State Civil Service.