Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
This research work was undertaken to examine the constraints of Nigeria government agencies in tackling the Boko Haram insurgence. The thrust of the work also examined the historical evolution of Boko Haram emergence in Nigeria, the causes of the emergence, the Federal government responses and contributions. The researcher made use of descriptive mode of analysis to arrive at the conclusion. Data used was gotten from various secondary sources such as, Official publications, Newspapers, Journals, and electronic Media such as television, radio and internet. Based on the findings, the researcher made some recommendations that will aid security agencies in their fight against domestic terrorism in addition to advising the government to be responsive to the plight of the people.
This thesis scrutinise the political and economic perspective of Boko Haram, a group that was known to be religiously motivated (belief against western life, e.g. they do not put on western cloths) but now seems to be politically motivated. Boko Haram claim to be against western education, is that what they really want? because if it is, why then do they use things invented through education (things like internet for uploading their videos and communicating to each other, they also make use of telephones, even bomb making requires skills from some who has studied about it) or is it a way of forcing power shift back to the north, by making sure Jonathan administration a failure and not capable of heading the country or is it a way of Islamising the northern states in Nigeria, if it is, why then are they killing Muslims in the north. Economic aspect of Boko Haram since the beginning of the new era of Boko Haram in 2009 has brought economic lost to Nigeria. As a result of Boko Haram activities, Nigeria has lost and still losing millions of naira‟s, economic centres and markets are being destroyed with explosives. People travel all the way from Mali, Niger, Chad, Cameroon (people also come from all parts of Nigeria) to buy and sell in the northern part of Nigeria, but can no longer do so because of Boko Haram activities in the north.
` It is also suggested that avoiding situations that could lead to insurgency is better than trying to counter one. This thesis thus suggests social-political and economic reforms as well as amnesty programs as measures if heavily invested in, to help curb Boko Haram as well as insurgency in general.
This chapter aim to provide a preamble for this project. This introduction will included the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of study, justification of the study and finally, plan of the study
1.1 Background to the study.
Since the return of Nigeria to civilian rule in May 1999, a number of security challenges coupled with militancy, arms proliferation, kidnapping, political assassinations, and ethno-religious conflicts has been witnessed. However, the outbreak of the Boko Haram uprising in July 2009 heralded new security challenges into the country. The Boko Haram uprising stands out because of the seeming facelessness of the perpetrators and the mystery surrounding their real agenda.
(Arabic: جماعة اهل ال س نة ل لدعىة وال جهاد Jamā’a Ahl al-sunnah li-da’wa wa al-jihād), better known by its Hausa name Boko Haram (pronounced [bōːkòː hàrâm], “Western education is sinful”) “Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad”–the People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad is an Islamic jihadist militant terrorist organization based in the northeast of Nigeria north Cameroon and Niger. It is an Islamist movement which strongly opposes man-made laws and Westernization. “Western education is forbidden” and is derived from one of the chief tenets of the teachings of Muhammad Yusuf, the groups early in 2001. The organization seeks to establish sharia law in the country. The group is also known for attacking Christians, bombing churches and attacking schools1.
Since independence until 1999, Nigeria was ruled largely by military rulers, a number of whom were northern Muslims (although the longest ruling of them, Yakubu Gwon, was a Christian). During this period, Nigerian Islam was riven with doctrinal debates between the Sufis and the Salafists (led by the charismatic Abu Bakar Gumi until his death in 1992), oblivious to the fact that Christians were heavily proselytizing throughout the country, especially in the region of the Middle Belt. The growth of Christianity was reflected in the 1999 election of Olusegun Obasanjo (re-elected in 2003), and the continued southern Christian domination of Goodluck Jonathan (successor to the brief Muslim presidency of Umaru Musa Yar‟Adua in 2010).2
It is almost three years ago that a group of Northern Nigerian militants that jihad. This has claimed thousands of lives and millions naira worth of properties. However, a critical analysis of the mission of the group pointed to the theory of poverty and political alienation.
Ever since the beginning of this boko haram insurgence in Nigeria, 2009 which mark the era of president Good luck after the death of late president Yar‟Adua, Nigeria have been having internal security issues mainly on terrorism in Nigeria. Boko haram the organization behind this has coursed damages to Nigeria in so many ways3. Hours after the swearing-in of Nigeria‟s newly-elected President, Goodluck Jonathan, on May 29, a series of bomb explosions tore through North-Eastern Nigeria, killing more than a dozen persons. An extremist Islamic sect called Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the attacks. The sect has been in the news in recent months, and is suspected of responsibility for a number of assassinations and bombings.
The country has hardly survived the ethno-religious crises when the Boko Haram problem violence erupted in 2008. The Boko Haram insurgency with all its destabilising propensities is another challenge of serious concern for which the Federal Government of Nigeria is yet to find solution.
1.2 Statement of the problem.
Boko Haram is a salafi-jihadi Muslim group that has operated in northern Nigeria Since 2002. After a violent suppression in 2009, Boko haram resurface in the fall of 2010 with a high profile campaign of assassinations and attacks throughout northern Nigeria. Starting during the summer of 2011, Boko haram begun to use suicide attacks, and have manifested the signs of transitioning into a globalist Salafi-jihadi group that might be of some importance in Africa‟s most populous country, Nigeria4.
The northern Nigeria since late 2009 has not been at rest; with the unrest bringing about death of thousands of both citizens and foreigners; destruction of properties worth billions of naira, dollars, pounds (i.e. when converted to any country‟s currency), and this destructions has rendered a lot of people homeless, poor, so many people cannot attend school in the northern part of Nigeria. (Has led to increased poverty rate); poor economy; and also to poor trade relations between the Nigeria and other countries of the world5. Boko Haram while fighting these enemies, remembered the Christian infidels in the north. Indeed, they are said to be against all forms of Western life style in their midst. So they are against the police, government, Christians and Westernization. The question one is left with is „why would the citizens of the Nigeria in the name of belief and religion take up arms against their own fellow people6?
1.3 Objectives of the study
This research will critically scrutinize a lot of ideas on the issue of boko haram in Nigeria, whether it‟s really about western education, because if it is why then do they use things invented through education (things like internet for uploading their videos and communicating to each other, they also make use of telephones, even bomb making requires skills from some who has studied about it) or is it a way of forcing power shift back to the north, by making sure Jonathan administration a failure and not capable of heading the country or is it a way of Islamising the northern states in Nigeria, if it is, why then are they killing Muslims in the north7.
The general objective of this study is to critically analyze the view towards Boko Haram in Nigeria. The board objective is to examine the political economics of Boko Haram in Nigeria. The specific objectives are to;
To explore terrorism and Boko haram.
To explore the motive for the formation of the movement political or religious.
To examine the educational implication of Boko haram operation in Nigeria.
To examine the political content of boko haram operation especially power shift to the north.
To appraise if it is for political gains or to a response to the trendy global terrorism.
To scrutinize if the doctrines is in tune with the pristine Islamic principles, or are they prone to subvert the Islamic cultural values.
1.4 Research Questions
What is the Boko Haram?
What is the motive for the formation of the Movement political or religious?
Is it a way of fighting western education?
Is it a way of forcing power shift to the north?
Is it to achieve political gains or is it a response to the trendy global terrorism?
Are the doctrines in tune with the pristine Islamic principles, or are they prone to subvert the Islamic cultural values?
This research will cover from 2009-2013 time space is limited to Nigeria. The area of concentration has to do with some selected part of the north because it doesn‟t occur everywhere in Nigeria. We look at how it link with international terrorism group with Niger, with Mali and others.
1.6 Significance of Study
This study is a trending topic in Nigeria. This research work will serve as guide for a researcher that either wants to know about the Boko Haram insurgency or wants to conduct a research. It will help to enlighten foreigners who would love or has invested in the northern part of Nigeria. This research work will also help international governmental organization;
such as the United Nations and regional organizations; such as the African Union to know how to help each country curb their internal security issue that indirectly or directly affect (s) the citizens human right violations; and put in place various mechanism that would prevent internal crisis from escalating into a full scale war that will result to killing, and destruction of lives and properties. So if various governments become very much aware that the prevalence of insurgencies and terrorisms in various parts of the world is heavily connected to governmental lapses or bad governance and work tirelessly to adopt some of the measures suggested in this thesis, the scourge of insurgencies and terrorism would be immensely reduced. In this order, this study provides insight with the realisation that countering an insurgency, which is often done with brutality, only helps to institutionalise insurgencies and take it to the level of wider terrorism.
Library research; this involves the analysis of historical record and documents in the library. This type of research is a desktop kind of research where interviews are not done, questionnaires are not distributed, and opinions are not recorded. This type of research is based mainly on books by renowned scholars and internet findings.
Field research; this type of research methodology involves the use of tape recorders, personal interviews, group interviews, questionnaires, telephone survey and all other forms of primary research techniques.
The study will adopts the use of desktop or library research method; which includes the review of internet resources, newspapers, textbooks, articles, Past project relating to my topics, journals all relating to the subject matter. Majority of the material to be used for this study will be acquired mostly from the internet.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitations of this study will be first and foremost, the fact that this issue of Boko Haram terrorist activity is still on-going so there are likely to be new development which the research work may not be able to cover. Secondly, as at this time of writing this research, there is also lack of adequate internet connectivity due to my location. It also pertinent to admit the financial constraints that are also accompany this research study.
1.9 Plane of the study
This chapter will consist of the general or background to the study, the statement of problems, the objectives of the study, the questions the research work seeks to answer, the scope of the project, significance of the study and finally the research methodology.
Chapter2: literature review.
It will be based generally on literature review where the historical background and the terminologies will be defined and theories of international concept on terrorism will be discussed as a result of course of study.
Chapter3: History and development of boko haram
This is the central/core aspect of this study. This chapter will start with a general history of terrorism, after which the focus will be streamlined to Nigeria fully.
Chapter4: Analysis and discussion of resource.
This chapter will critically discuss boko haram from a political angle within Nigeria and also how the Nigerians feel about their security on the issue of the Boko Haram group, and how the Nigeria government have been able to deal with it, and the legal instrument put in place to curb their actions.
Chapter5: Summary conclusion and recommendation.
This chapter will consist of a very brief summary of the entire project, a closing and also provide some ideas on how terrorism can be stopped in Nigeria.