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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research study is to examine the influence of Social Media and
Academic Performance Of students in University of Lagos. Five Research questions
and five Research hypotheses guided the study. To achieve this, the descriptive
survey research design was adopted. The study focused on University of Lagos
hence, population consists of all the 24,661 full-time undergraduate students. The
simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 378 students. A
four point Likert Type Rating Scale Questionnaire type, titled: Social Media and
Academic Performance of Students Questionnaire (SMAAPOS) was used to collect
data from the participants. The descriptive statistics of frequency counts and
percentage, were used to analyze the demographic data while inferential statistics
of Chi-square(x2) was used in testing the research hypotheses. Research findings
showed that a great number of students in University of Lagos, are addicted to social
media. To this end, the researcher recommended that social media should be used
for educational purposes as well; Social Networking Sites should be expanded and new
pages should be created to enhance academic activities and avoid setbacks in the students’
academic performance; and Students should be monitored by teachers and parents on how
they use these sites This is to create a balance between social media and academic
activities of students to avoid setbacks in the academic performance of the students.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
The world is today celebrating the improvements in communication technology which has
broadened the scope of communication through Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs). Modern Technology in communication no doubt has turned the entire
world into a “Global village”. But as it is, technology like two sides of a coin, bring with it
both negative and positive sides. It helps people to be better informed, enlightened, and
keeping abreast with world developments. Technology exposes mankind to a better way of
doing things. Social networking sites include: Twitter, Yahoo Messenger, Facebook
Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM), Whats app messenger, 2go messenger, Skype,
Google talk, Google Messenger, iPhone and Androids. These networking sites are used by
most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends ( Asemah and
Edegoh, 2012). The world has been changed rapidly by the evolution of technology; this
has resulted into the use of technology as the best medium to explore the wide area of
knowledge.
The evolution of internet technology has led to its use as the best medium for
communication. Whereby, two-third of the world’s internet population visits social
networking or blogging sites, thus serving as a communication and connection tool. Social
networking sites (SNSs) are online Communities of Internet users who want to
communicate with other users about areas of mutual interest, whether from a personal, business or academic perspective‖ (William ,Boyd, Densten, Chin, Diamond &
Morgenthaler 2009). The millions of social networking sites have transformed the thought
of global village into a reality whereby billions of people communicate through social
networking sites. Numerous benefits have been obtained through distant communication
through the use of social networking sites.
Academic excellence or achievement plays an important role in an individual placement,
be it in the academic institutions or job placement. Due to this, many people are concerned
with the ways they can enhance their academic achievement. The emphasis on academic
excellence which is also prevalent worldwide has encouraged many studies about the
conditions promoting it. The role of academic achievement as one of the predictors of one’s
life success and also in the aspect of academic placement in schools to higher institutions
as well as the level of employability in one’s career is inevitable (Kyoshaba, 2009).
Academic performance, which is measured by the examination results, is one of the major
goals of a school. Hoyle (1986) argued that schools are established with the aim of
imparting knowledge and skills to those who go through them and behind all this is the idea
of enhancing good academic performance.
Academic performance or achievement is the outcome of education, the extent to which a
student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance
is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general
agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important, procedural
knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts (Annie, Howard &
Mildred, 1996).
A direct relationship exists between Social media usage and the academic performance of
students in universities. However the darker side within technological evolution has
resulted in dilemmas such as the setback of real values of life especially among students
who form the majority of users interacting through the use of social networking sites.
Online social networking sites focus on building and reflecting social associations among
people who share interests and or activities. With so many social networking sites displayed
on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their homework and reading times in
preference for chatting online with friends. Many students are now addicted to the online
rave of the moment, with Facebook, Twitter etc.
Today most youths and students possess Facebook accounts. The reason most of them
perform badly in school might not be far- fetched. While many minds might be quick to
blame the poor quality of teachers, they might have to think even harder, if they have not
heard of the Facebook frenzy (Oche & Aminu .2010). Olubiyi (2012) noted that these days’
students are so engrossed in the social media that they are almost 24 hours online. Even in
classrooms and lecture theatres, it has been observed that some students are always busy
pinging, 2going or Facebooking, while lectures are on. Times that ought be channeled
towards learning, academic research and innovating have been crushed by the passion for
meeting new friends online, and most times busy discussing trivial issues. Hence most
students’ academics suffer setback as a result of distraction from the social media. In (Obi,
Bulus, Adamu & Sala’at 2012), it was observed that the use of these sites also affects
students’ use of English and grammar. The students are used to short forms of writing
words in their chat rooms; they forget and use the same in the classrooms. They use things like 4 in place of for, U in place of You, D in place of The etc. and this could
affect their class assessment.
Social networking sites although has been recognized as an important resource for
education today, studies however shows that students use social networking sites such as
Facebook for fun, to kill time, to meet existing friends or to make new ones (Ellison,
Steinfield, and Lampe 2007). Although it has been put forward that students spends much
time on participating in social networking activities, with many students blaming the
various social networking sites for their steady decrease in grade point averages (Kimberly,
Jeong and Lee, 2009), it also shows that only few students are aware of the academic and
professional networking opportunities the sites offered.
According to Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010), social network websites grab attention of
the students and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions including
useless chatting. Whereas on the other hand, (Liccardi, Ounnas, Massey, Kinnunen, Midy,
& Sakar. 2007) reviewed that the students are socially connected with each other for sharing
their daily learning experiences and do conversation on several topics.Tinto (1997) argued
that extracurricular activities and academic activities are not enough to satisfy some student
those who are suffered by social networking isolation. This shows that social networks are
beneficial for the students as it contributes in their learning experiences as well as in their
academic life. Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels (2009) noted that the Internet is no doubt
evolution of technology but specifically social networks are extremely unsafe for teenagers,
social networks become hugely common and well-known in past few years. According to
Cain (2009) social network websites provide ease of connecting people to one another; free of cost and after connecting one can post news, informative material and other things
including videos and pictures etc. Wiley and Sisson (2006) argued that the previous studies
have found that more than 90% of tertiary school students use social networks. In the same
way Ellison et al (2007) stated that the students use social networking websites
approximately 30 minutes throughout the day as a part of their daily routine life. This
statement shows the importance of social networking websites in students’ life. Lenhart
and Madden (2007) revealed through a survey that students strongly recommend social
networking websites to stay in touch with friends to keep informed and aware.
Social information processing theory is an interpersonal communication theory which
suggests that online interpersonal relationship development might require more time to
develop than face-to-face relationships, but when developed, it has the same influence as
face-to-face communication. This means, the more students use social media, the more they
influence their disposition to studies, given the fact that friends from social media will begin
to exert influence on each other.
Statement of Problem
The world today is a global market in which the internet is the most important sort of
information. Since the advent of social media sites in the 1990s, it is assumed in some
quarters that the academic performance of students is facing a lot of neglect and challenges.
The educational system in Nigeria is faced with so many challenges which have certainly
brought about a rapidly decline in the quality of education. There is a deviation, distraction
and divided attention between social networking activities and their academic work. It is
observed that students devote more attention to social media than they do to their studies.
Students’ addictiveness to social networks, students’ frequency of exposure to social
network, social media network that the students are more exposed to and the influence of
social media as a medium of interaction between students has been part of discussion in
recent times and which have imparted on their academic performance. Instead of students
reading their books, they spend their time chatting and making friends via the social media
and this might definitely have influence on their academic performance, because when you
do not read, there is no way you can perform well academically. It is a common sight to
see a student chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church, mosque and
lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way,
they keep chatting.
The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has
complicated the situation, as students no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send
and receive messages. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while
important ventures like study and writing might be affected in the process. This
phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill
acquisition.
In recent times social media have been a major stay in the minds of students and the world
at large thereby causing a lot of drastic measure by students, teacher and even educational
administrators at large. It is therefore of great importance to explore some of the trending
issues facing students’ academic performance as a result of social media. Students at all
levels of learning now have divided attention to studies, as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed from social media. Whether these opportunities promote
studies is a question that needs to be answered. Thus, the problem this study investigates is
the influence of social media networks on the academic performance of the students in
University of Lagos.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study generally is to examine the influence of Social Media on the
Academic Performance of students in University of Lagos.
Specifically, the study seeks;
1. To examine the level of student addictiveness to social media and the influence on their
academic performance.
2. To determine the social media network that the students are more exposed to and the
influence on their academic performance.
3. To ascertain how the use of social media has influence the academic performance of the
students in University of Lagos.
4. To ascertain the difference in students’ usage of social media network by gender.
5. To ascertain how age has influence on students’ usage of social media network.
Research Questions
The following research questions were raised;
1. To what extent would student addictiveness to social network influence their academic
performance?
2. Does the social media network that the students are more exposed to influence their
academic performance?
3. How has the use of social media influence the academic performance of the students in
University of Lagos?
4. Is there gender difference in the student’s usage of social media network?
5. In what way do younger and older students influence the use of social media?
Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are generated by the researcher and was tested in this study:
1. Students’ addictiveness to social network has no significant influence on their academic
performance.
2. Student’s exposure to social media network has no significant influence on students’
academic performance.
3. Use of social media do no significantly influence on the academic performance of the
students in University of Lagos.
4. There is no significant difference between male and female student usage of social media
network.
5. Age does not have significant influence on the use of social media.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. This study will help the
teachers of the school to know the influence that social media has on their students, so as
to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible influence it
has on them. The study is of significant to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these social media usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog
to their children on the usage of the social networking site.
The study will enable the students of the senior level so that they will be aware that, apart
from the social benefits of this social networking site, using the sites more than necessary
will pose possible dangers to their health. It will be relevant in assisting students in
understanding the diversity of social media. It will provide relevance material for students
and other researchers undertaking similar research. The study will help researchers with
more information on the Influence of social media on student’s academic performance.
Scope of the Study
The focus of this research work is to primarily study the Influence of social media on the
academic performance of students. The study will comprise students in University of
Lagos.
Operational Definition of Terms
As words may mean differently in different contexts, the following definitions are given as
the words used as intended to be understood for the purpose of this study.
Social Media: They are forms of electronic communication which facilitate
interactive base on certain interests. Social media include web
and mobile technology
Social Networking Sites: A website where people put information about them and can
send to others.
Social Networking: The use of internet to make information about yourself
available to other people especially people you share an
interest with to send messages to them.
Media: Are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a
large audience by mass communication. “They are messages
communicated through a mass medium to a number of people.
Academic: It is concerned with Studying from books as opposed by a
practical work.
Students: Someone who is Studying at a University or School. Someone
who is very interested in a particular subject.
Computer: A computer is a machine that receives or stores or process data
quickly according to a stored program.
Tweets: A short message posted on Twitter (a micro blog).
ICT: Information and Communication Technology.

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