Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
The title of this project is effect of unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria a case study of ministry of education. Since the problems of unemployment cannot be tackled at ease, this project has the following objectives to find out the causes of unemployment in Nigeria and how it has impeded the socio economic development, to examine the activities and programmes of the government in her efforts to tackling unemployment problems in Nigeria and to look for the way forward in reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.The research hypothesis for this study are H01: Unemployment does not impede the Nigerian economic growth and development, H11:Unemployment has impede the Nigerian economic growth and development, H02: Government programmes have not in any way helped in tackling the problems of unemployment in Nigeria and H12:Government programmes have helped in tackling the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.The study provided empirical data on the effect of unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria. The study would be useful to various stakeholders in many ways. It could shed more light on the unemployment in Nigeria among the youth. The study is thus an avenue to lend a voice to the debate agitated by developing countries, including Nigeria, on the issue. Also, apart from its contribution to the body of knowledge on the controversial unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria, this study could provide an academic platform for other Mass Communication scholars who may be interested in the youth unemployment in Nigeria.With the use of simple random sampling techniques from the population of 240 staff of ministry of education and citizen of Nigeria, the researcher selected 150 staff of ministry of education and citizen of Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study Unemployment and rising inflation are some of the major problems currently beingfaced in the 21st century and the Nigerian government is not an exemption. Unemployment is a situation whereby people who are physically fit, capable, qualified and ready to work at any time are without jobs. The issue of unemployment is one of the macro economic problems of a nation. Currently, indeveloping countries, the problem of unemployment has been increasing as a resultof different economic problems facing most countries. The issue of unemploymentin Nigeria is highly different compared to other nations. This is due to high level ofcorruption, mismanagement of public funds, among others over the years. Feridun and Akindele (2006) identified unemployment as one of the major challengesconfronting the Nigerian economy. The social impacts of unemployment are lessprevalent in economies that are able to support unemployed class with subsidiesand social security allowances. Udabah (1999) noted that the main reason for lowstandard of living in underdeveloped countries is the relative inadequate andinefficient utilization of labour compared with advanced nations. Fadayomi (1992),Osinubi (2006), argued that unemployment is as a result of the inability to developand utilize the nations manpower resources effectively especially in the ruralsector. Interestingly, every government regime comes with its own economic growthincrease strategy, but none has been able to achieve the desired goal. Since the continuous increase in population begun, developing nations have been characterized by unemployment. The issue of unemployment brought about some social and economic consequences such as; increase in crime rate, loss of respectand identity, reduction in purchasing power, psychological injuries, corruption among others. Muhammad, Inuwa, and Oye (2011) submitted that unemployment constitutes a series of serious development problems and is increasingly more serious all over Nigeria. Alanana (2003) argued that unemployment is potentially dangerous as it sends disturbing signals to all segment of the economy. Since the change in governance from military to democratic rule of government in 1999, the major policy of the government and international agencies is targeted at reducing the rate of unemployment in the 21st century, in other to devoid the country of more dangerous acts than existing ones. Various programmes such as the Youth Empowerment Programme (YEP) and National EconomicEmpowerment Programmes (NEED) were established to reduce rate ofunemployment in the country, but the issue of unemployment still remainsunchanged as observed in studies such as Ejiekeme (2014) in the 21st century. Thisstudy therefore investigates the extent at which unemployment has impacted on economic growth in Nigeria in the 21st century. Unemployment has become a major problem in Nigeria and millions of graduates and school leavers are busy roamingthe streets in search of elusive jobs. However, government at all levels is paying lip service to creating employment opportunities for the people. As the mass of the unemployed roams the street, government officials, elected and appointed, are busy enlargingtheir coast at the expense of the people. While the people are groaning under the eight poverty and penury, the government is busy reeling out statistics that the economy is growing. Some of the unemployed youths have died offrustration; while many are persevering, hoping that life will better for them. Before penultimate Saturday, March 15th national tragedies, the common parlance in the country has seeminglybeen that unemployment situation is under control with pockets of low and high profile criminal job scams recordedmostly in urban centres and reported accordingly. As reported below, official statistics have seemed to support the reallya threat in the scheme of things in Nigeria, even when it is an incontrovertible fact that compared with most advancedeconomies of the world like Japan and Britain, the unemployment rate in Nigeria is quite mind-boggling. Last year, the National Population Commission said that the rate of unemployment in Nigeria rose from 21.1 percent in 2010 to 23.9 per cent in 2011. The NPC, in a report on its website, said the nation’s economic growth had nottranslated into job creation. It said, “Figures from the National Bureau of Statistics clearly illustrated the deep challengesin Nigeria’s labour market, where the nation’s rapid economic growth has not translated into effective job creation. “TheNBS estimates that Nigeria’s population grew by 3.2 per cent in 2011, reflection rapid population growth. In 2011,Nigeria’s unemployment rose to 23.9 per cent compared with 21.1 per cent in 2010(NBS,2012).” It said the labour force swelled by 2.1 million to 67,256,090 people, with just 51,224,115 persons employed, leaving 16,074,205 people without work. The NPC said the lack of sufficient jobs resulted in additional 2.1 million unemployment persons in 2011, up from 1.5 million unemployed people produced in 2010. It added, “Unemployment washigher in the rural areas, at 25.6 per cent, than in the urban areas, where it was 17 per cent on average. In the light of thecountry’s fast-growing population, efforts to create a conducive environment for job created in 2011 was reported as 209,239 by the Federal Ministry of labour and productivity. 54% of Nigerian youths unemployed in 2012-The National Bureauof Statistics. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in late in December last year said that 54 per cent of Nigerianyouths were unemployed in 2012. This fact was contained in the “2012 National Baseline Youth Survey Report” issued inAbuja by the NBS in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Youths Development. “More than half, about 54 per cent ofyouth population was unemployed. Of this, females stood at 51.9 per cent compared to their male counterpart with 48.1 42,071, representing 75.5 per cent were males, while the remaining 24.5 per cent were females. “Among the 32 differentcrimes committed, Marijuana (Indian hemp) smoking has the highest figure, representing 15.7 per cent. This was followedby theft and murder with 8.1 and 7.4 per cent, respectively. The respectively. The least committed crime was Immigration/Emigration representing 0.04 per cent(NBS,2012).” According to the survey, the population of youths aged between 15 and 35 years in Nigeria is estimated to be 64million, while females are more than males in all age groups. The report said Lagos State had the highest percentage ofyouths in Nigeria with 6.1 per cent, followed by Kano state representing 5.7 per cent, while Bayelsa state had the lowestwith 1.3 per cent. The report said the objective of the study was to provide useful data for the design and development ofyouth-focused programmes by the Federal Ministry of Youths Development and other partners in the country. 1.2 Statement of the Study The level of unemployment in Nigeria has grown large that it cannot be addressed by mere campaign or words ofmouth. It required the combined efforts of both individuals and the government of the country in particular andthe world at large to formulate a lasting solution to it. Unemployment in Nigeria has affected the youth and theeconomic development of the country from a broad spectrum of socio-economic perspective. It is obvious thatunemployment especially that of graduates impedes Nigeria’s progress in several ways. Apart from the economicwaste it brought to the nation, it also constitutes political unrest for the country (Ipaye, 1998). According to Ezie(2012), the unemployment situation in Nigeria is disturbing and even more disheartening that the country’seconomic condition cannot absorb an optimal proportion of its labour force. This situation has contributed to theincrease in crimes and other social vices experienced in our society in recent time, because an idle mind isalways the devils workshop. Another problem facing the employment situation in Nigeria centered on power generation. The poorpower generation in Nigeria has contributed to the level of unemployed people. Despite all the efforts made byboth the past and present administration to salvage the problem of epileptic power supply, the country hasexperienced little or no change. Since the problem of power cannot be tackled, the industries, institutions and agencies which are expected to provide the much needed employment flaw out of the country for some betteropportunities, thus leaving our work force unemployed. This project is determined to address some of thesechallenges. 1.3 Objective of the Study Since the problems of unemployment cannot be tackled at ease, this project has the following objectives: 1. To find out the causes of unemployment in Nigeria and how it has impeded the socio economic development. 2. To examine the activities and programmes of the government in her efforts to tackling unemployment problems in Nigeria. 3. To look for the way forward in reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria. 1.4 Research Questions The following questions have been put forward to address research objectives; 1. Does unemployment impede the Nigerian economic growth and development? 2. To what extent has the government programmes helped in tackling the problems of unemployment inNigeria? 1.5 Research Hypothesis H01: Unemployment does not impede the Nigerian economic growth and development. H11:Unemployment has impede the Nigerian economic growth and development. H02: Government programmes have not in any way helped in tackling the problems of unemployment in Nigeria. H12:Government programmes have helped in tackling the problems of unemployment in Nigeria. 1.6 Significance of the Study This study provided empirical data on the effect of unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria. The study would be useful to various stakeholders in many ways. It could shed more light on the unemployment in Nigeria among the youth. The study is thus an avenue to lend a voice to the debate agitated by developing countries, including Nigeria, on the issue. Also, apart from its contribution to the body of knowledge on the controversial unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria, this study could provide an academic platform for other Mass Communication scholars who may be interested in the youth unemployment in Nigeria. Moreover, the study could be a useful reference material to ministry of education for national development. 1.7 Scope of the Study The scope of this study is centered on effect of unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria a case study of ministry of education. 1.8 Limitation of the Study Theresearchworkislimitedto the effect of unemployment on the socio economic development of Nigeria.Themainconstraintoftheresearchisdividedintothefollowing parts. a) Timeconstraints-duetotheshorttimegivenforthestudy,the researchercouldnotgetalltherequiredinformationneededforthe study. b) Finance-asaresultofmoneyconstrainttheresearcherhadnot enoughmoneytocarryoutthestudybeyondthelevel.The researchercouldnotvisitplaceswherenecessaryinformation relevantto thestudycouldbeobtained. c) Attitudeofrespondents–someoftherespondentswereunwillingto cooperatewiththeresearcherbecausetheyfelt,theyhavenothing tobenefitfromthestudybothfinanciallyandotherwise.Besides theywereafraidoflosingtheirjobs,ifallinformationneededare releasedto theresearcher. 1.9 Definition of Terms Socio-economic: In the context of this study, refers to the social and economic realities of social problems in our society and the extend it affects the society. It is concerned with the study of the society. Effects: It refers to the causes, implications, result, or outcome of a thing. Youth: Official policy defines a youth as a young person aged 18-40 years who is passing through mental and physical developmental processes in preparation to face life challenges, a period between childhood, teenager and adulthood. Unemployment: when a great many people are unable to find work, unemployment results. It can also be defined as the inability to obtain a job when one is willing and able to work. Also, it occurs when the supply of labour outstrips the demand for labour. It also means lack of sufficient employment in the formal and informal sector. Youth Unemployment can be defined as the conglomeration of young persons with diverse background, willing and able to work but cannot find any. It is the situation when young persons aged 18 – 35 years who are actively looking for work but fail to find any one during a long period of time. Armed Robbery: According to the Nigerian constitution and Police report, it can be defined as the use of guns or other dangerous weapons to inflict intimidation and fear into another person to gain access to someone’s house, shop, office, or social institution. It is the use of force and arms to steal from someone. But in this study, it will be defined as those unlawful or unapproved means where young men and ladies use violence, to inflict people and property and get what they want from them. Kidnapping means the unlawful seizing or carrying away of a person by force or fraud inorder to obtain ransom for his or her release. It is the taking away or transportation of person to hidden and isolated area usually false imprisonment against the person’s will either to kill or to receive money as ransom. In this study, according to my respondents, is the method of hiding people, used by poor young men to get their own share of money from the rich. Poverty: means the state where someone cannot satisfy the basic needs of life such as food, shelter, clothing, money and other basic necessities of life. It is the state of being poor, inferior or insufficient in amount. Here, it means the condition where one lacks wealth, money or job as a result of no opportunity or certain factors of life. Political Thuggery: This can be defined as sponsored thugs used by politicians during political rallies, campaigns and election to win their opponents and acquire a position or office. It also means using violent, brutal behaviour, intimidate and all manners of weapons to attack, or kill an innocent opponent for reason of political differences. In this study, it is a tool or means of killing, abduction, violence or threat to life used by politicians to overthrow their opponents and acquire power or political office.