This study has critically examined the Millennium Development Goals and poverty reduction in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined how lack of good governance in the management of Millennium Development Goals funds undermined poverty reduction in Anambra State, and how the state implementation of neo-liberal economic policies impeded the programme of poverty reduction in the State. Literature reviewed are deficient in explaining the link between lack of good governance in the management of resources relating to MDGs which undermined poverty alleviation in Nigeria and also did not explain how the implementation of neoliberal economic policies impeded the enormous programmes put in place by the governments for poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Hence, this was the problematique of the study. Theory of Post-colonial state was adopted in arguing that the Millennium Development Goals was a cover for the accumulation of capital by the West and the comprador bourgeoisie, and as such did not conduce to poverty reduction in Nigeria. The study relied
mainly on secondary data. Using qualitative descriptive methods of data analysis, the study discovered inter alia: (i) that lack of good governance in the management of MDGs funds undermined poverty reduction in Anambra State, and (ii) that the state implementation of neoliberal economic policies impeded the programme of poverty reduction in the State. Arising from the above findings, the study recommended among other things that Anambra state government should adopt policies that favour and encourage transparency, accountability and rule of law in the management of fund that accrues to the state.
1.1 Background to the Study
Over the past fifty years, many countries of the world and essentially African have been besieged by the challenges of poverty, stagnation and backwardness. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2006) report indicates that African countries account for about 80 percent of cumulative world poverty. As a result of this scenario, Okolie (2005:10) contends that “majority of the citizenry is affected by and mired in a culture of grinding penury occasioned largely by reckless, rapacious and unabashed misappropriation and misuse of public wealth.” Similarly, White and Killick (2001) noted that data on income poverty since late 1980s show Africa’s share of those living on less than a dollar a day to have risen, the absolute number of poor in Africa has grown five times more than the figure for Latin America and for South Asia. More so, Olukohi and Nyamjoh (2006:10) observe that:
The emergent leaders in successive order of the newly independent and post-colonial African states including Nigeria, have experimented with different fads nay a plethora of problematic and policy initiatives for overcoming challenges confronting African growth poverty reduction and overall development.
Prominent among these policies and programmes which have been severally prosecuted under the relevant United Nation’s Charter include, the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, the Napels Terms of the Group and African Debt Relieve, the United
Nations Global Compact, the various summits organized by the UN on social issues, the Environmental and Racism and Discrimination, the Poverty Reduction Papers, the 98 Plan for Africa, the Comprehensive Development Framework, Neo-economic policies, privatization, commercialization, free market etc, and latest being the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Olukoshi and Nyamnjoh (2006).