During the last two decades, there have been an accumulation of development experience and wisdom in developing countries as many have developed substantial knowledge and acquired capacity and experience in science and technology development and environmental management. This has engendered the potential for experience sharing among the South and development-replicating values through South- South Cooperation has resulted in mutually beneficial bilateral relationships. Extant studies either dwelt on South-South cooperation in generic terms or dealt with bilateral relations among countries of the South in a disparate manner. This study therefore focused on Nigeria–Brazil bilateral relations within the context of South-South cooperation. The study posed the following question; has the Nigeria-Brazil bilateral relations within the context of South-South cooperation enhance economic
development in Nigeria? The qualitative descriptive research method and ex-post-facto research design were employed, while the theory of developmental state guided the analysis. It found that,Patronage and political interference by the elites which resulted in lowproductive activities is being sustained with large welfare losses as a consequence. The inefficiency and careless attitudes of the Nigerian political leaders have brought about consistent failure of industrial policies since independence till date; and that the participation of the Brazilian National Oil Company (Petrobras) in the Nigerian oil industry failed to
improve the low indigenous capacity for oil exploration, production and refining activities. It therefore recommended among others, the diversification of Nigeria’s trade away from oil to an increased drive towards industrialization and local value addition to Nigeria’s primary exports; and strives towards the developmental state.
1.1 Background to the Study
Development, the well-being of the citizens, the building of more equitable societies,
united, in open dialogue with the environment, with solid institutions that not only set goals for
countries within the framework of their national policies, but also guarantee good governability,
can all be strengthened through international cooperation (Colacrai, 2010). According to this
position, different agreements and global agendas promote joint action between developed and
developing countries but South-South cooperation plays a decisive role in those global initiatives
to eradicate poverty, stimulate economic growth and promote sustainable development.
Colacrai(2010: 2) argued that;
in the past 50 years we have observed an endless number of definitions and ideas related to North-South issues, while at the same time seeing the development of the notion of South-South relations.
She further observed that this scenario of international cooperation appears to be taking an important turn, emphasizing the notion of giving new value to South-South cooperation, within which developing countries learn how to better apply the policies and best practices of other developing countries, taking into consideration their national priorities.
Landsberg and Moore (2013) similarly noted that there is a need, with the growth of new, large and influential economies in the Global South, to craft an understanding of South-South Cooperation not just in relation to the Global North, but also by way of defining or establishing ideal relations between countries of the Global South, through South-South cooperation. They noted that the primary elements of South-South cooperation began to crystallize at Bandung in 1955, at the Asian-African Conference. The realization of their common concerns in international affairs led African and Asian leaders to start meeting in the late 1950s, and to begin to constitute a common identity distinct from the world of imperial powers. This position gave rise to the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) in 1961. The movement was based on the principles of peace and disarmament, independence and self-determination, economic equality, cultural equality, and universalism and multilateralism. Landsberg and Moore (2013) stated that Southern’ or ‘Third World’ solidarity began as an amorphous concept related to the support (mainly political and economic) offered to countries lacking in industrial development, with a shared colonial experience and a perspective of marginalization in international affairs, by countries sharing these qualities. From the 1960s on, however, ‘South-South cooperation’ gained momentum from the analytical lens known as Dependency Theory, advanced in large part by a number of South American economists, namely Raul Prebisch, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and EnzoFalleto. It was evident in the desire of developing countries, recognizing a subservient role in relation to the advanced industrialized economies, to de-link from these economies and forge stronger economic ties among themselves, which they assumed would be less exploitative and more relevant to their development. According to them, over the years, South-South co-operation has taken the form of capital flows and trade contacts, though these are only now beginning to eclipse the established contacts with traditional Northern economic partners.
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