ETHNICITY AND VOTERS’ BEHAVIOUR: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GHANA AND NIGERIA, 2003-2008

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ABSTRACT


This study addresses a paramount factor in the politics of Nigeria and Ghana, i.e., ethnicity and voting behaviour. It traced the incidence to the pre-independence era in both countries and explains its place in the formation of political parties and electoral processes. This study draws attention to how competition for national resources among the various ethnic groups and regions has led to power struggle. Although previous scholars have made immense and insightful contribution on the subject matter, none of these scholars did a comparative study on ethnicity and voting behavoiur of Nigeria and Ghana within the period specified. A gap was located which inform the research question: Did ethnic inclination impact on the voting behaviour of Nigerians and Ghanaians in the 2003/2007 and 2004/2008 general elections? Does uneven distribution of government appointments among ethnic groups influence the voting behaviour of Nigerians and Ghanaians in the 2003/2007 and 2004/2008 general election? Data collection was base on the observation of relevant documents while descriptive analysis was adopted.
Ghanaian and Nigerian voters are aware of the fact that if political leaders of a particular party express disaffection towards their ethnic groups, then they do not expect to receive anything in terms of resource allocation; Clientelistic promises made by political leaders cause ethnic clustering and the division of society along ethnic lines; People tend to align themselves with a group that will provide them a stable means of access to resources that are beneficial to them.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………….………..i
APPROVAL PAGE………………………………………………………………………..ii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………….iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………..iv
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………v
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………………vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION…… …………………………………… …..… .1
1.1. Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………..… .4
1.2. Objectives of the Study………………… ….……………………………………..6
1.3. Significance of the Study………….………. … ……… ……………………… …6
1.4. Literature Review…………………………… ……… … …………… ……… …7
1.5. Theoretical Framework…………………………………… …… … ……… …. 15
1.6. Hypotheses………………………………………………………. .. ……. ……………20
1.7. Method of Data Collection…………………………………… … …………… ……..21
1.8. Method of Data Analysis………………………………………….. .. …………………. … ..21
CHAPTER TWO: A HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ETHNICITY IN
NIGERIA AND GHANA (FROM PRE-INDEPENDENCE)
2.1. Ethnicity in Nigerian politics………… ………… ……………… ……. ………… 22
2.2. Ethnicity in Ghana’s Politics……….. ……..……… ……… ……… …… … .. .25
2.3. Ethnicity and Ghana’s Two-Party System .………..……. ……… …….. … ……..32
CHAPTER THREE: ETHNICITY AND VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN GHANA AND
NIGERIA
3.1. The 2003/2007 Nigeria Election Results…… ……… …. …… ……… …. ….36
3.2. Ghana 2004/2008 General Elections………………… … ……………………..50
CHAPTER FOUR: ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION OF GOVERNMENT
APPOINTMENTS AND VOTING BEHAVIOUR IN
NIGERIA AND GHANA
4.1. Ethnic representation in Key offices in Ghana and Nigeria………………………….52
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1. Summary and Conclusion…………………………………………………… ..…..58
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………………….64
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