1.1 Background Of Study
The development of any nation depends to a very large extent on the calibre, organization and motivation of its human resources. In the specific case of Nigeria where diversity exerts tremendous influence on politics and administration, the capacity to increase the benefits and reduce the costs of this diversity constitutes a human resource management challenge of epic proportion in its public sector organizations. Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers.
Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training.
Human Resource Management is also a strategic and comprehensive approach to managing people and the workplace culture and environment. Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is moving away from traditional personnel, administration, and transactional roles, which are increasingly outsourced. HRM is now expected to add value to the strategic utilization of
employees and that employee programs impact the business in measurable ways. The new role of HRM involves strategic direction and HRM metrics and measurements to demonstrate.
HRM covers a wide range of activities. The main area of study we will focus on will be incentives and work organization. Incentives include remuneration systems (e.g. individuals or group incentive/contingent pay) and also the system of appraisal, promotion and career advancement. By work organization we mean the distribution of decision rights (autonomy/decentralization) between managers and workers, job design (e.g. flexibility of working, job rotation), team-working (e.g. who works with whom) and information provision.
Human resource management encompasses the traditional personnel functions of recruitment, selection, training, motivation, compensation, evaluation, discipline, and termination of employees. Each of those tasks demands particular skills. Increasingly, human resource management is being recognized for its strategic importance to organizations and jurisdictions, and is moving beyond its traditional position as a monitor of compliance. This course is designed to provide you with an understanding of the evolution of human resource management policies and practices, and how changes over time reflect shifting societal values and environmental circumstances. Our emphasis is on improving understanding of the
historical context and current conditions of public sector HRM and developing basic skills necessary to be an effectively manage human resources.
According to Likert (1996:112) the term human resource refers to the talents.” Thus the term connets man in relationship to the world of works. Such work involves producing things and providing services of all kinds in the social political, cultural and economic development of a nation.
“Human resources management is simply described as the management of the human resources in an organization for optimal utilization and attainment of organizational objectives” Banjoko (1996:69) AS opined by Harbinson (1998 :213) man power refers to human beings i.e. human
resources of an organization or nation regardless of their skill. They make
organizations functions”. Karen (1999:89) looks at manpower as a unique
resource. It is an indispensable means of converting all other resources to
mankind use and benefits” How well it is used determines how well an organization performs. Human resources management takes place within
the frame work of an organization in a purpose constrict, deliberately
designed to achieve certain goals. The efficiency with which that organization is operated will depend to a large extent on how utilized. For a manager to be effective, the manager has to design a programme which ensures the selection and training of employees for the jobs that best suit their abilities and motivating them to exert that maximum effort for the attainment of the corporate objective.
In the last ten years, organisations especially in Africa have been hit with the undisputable fact that the creation of competitive advantage lies in people. Organisations have increasingly recognised the potential for their people to be a source of competitive advantage. Not too long ago, so called HR functions was the preserve of „Personnel Managers‟ whose duties were to recruit and select, appraise, promote and demote. These superficial duties could be performed by any manager, it therefore never seemed necessary to employ an expert in the form of a human resource manager let alone create a whole department dedicated to HRM. Little attention was paid to human resource management issues and its impact on organisational performance. The emphasis on traditions and socio-cultural issues injected an element of subjectivity in „personnel manager‟ functions such as recruitment and selection, performance appraisal, promotion, demotion, and compensation.
In today‟s competitive and rapidly changing business world, organisations especially in the service industry need to ensure maximum utilisation of their resources to their own advantage; a necessity for organisational survival. Studies have shown that organisations can create and sustain competitive position through management of non-substitutable, rare, valuable, and inimitable internal resources (Barney, 1991). HRM has transcended from policies that gather dust to practices that produce results. Human resource management practices has the ability to create organisations that are more intelligent, flexible and competent than their rivals through the application of policies and practices that concentrate on recruiting, selecting, training skilled employees and directing their best efforts to cooperate within the resource bundle of the organisation. This can potentially consolidate organisation performance and create competitive advantage as a result of the historical sensitivity of human resources and the social complex of policies and practices that rivals may not be able to imitate or replicate their diversity and depth.
Lately, organisations are focused on achieving superior performance through the best use of talented human resources as a strategic asset. HRM policies or strategies must now be aligned to business strategies for organisational success. No matter the amount of technology and mechanisation developed, human resource remains the singular most important resource of any success-oriented organisation. After all, successful businesses are built on the strengths of exceptional people. HRM has now gained significance academically and business wise and can therefore not be relegated to the background or left in the hands of non-experts. Attention must be paid to the human resources organisations spent considerable time and resources to select.
Armstrong (2009) defines Human Resource Management (HRM) as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation‟s most valued assets; that is, the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. Moreover, Human resource management practices can be defined as a set of organisational activities that aims at managing a pool of human capital and ensuring that this capital is employed towards the achievement of organisational objectives (Wright and Boswell, 2002). The adoption of certain bundles of human resource management practices has the ability to positively influence organisation performance by creating powerful connections or to detract from performance when certain combinations of practices are inadvertently placed in the mix (Wagar and Rondeau, 2006). So if we think human resource management as just the services any manager may provide in recruiting and selecting, appraising, training and compensating employees, then we rather would have to take the backseat for those who understand the influence HRM has on corporate performance to take the centre stage. Research has recorded a positive relationship between human resource management practices and corporate performance. Thus in order to stimulate corporate performance, management is required to develop skilled and talented employees who are capable of performing their jobs successfully (Klein, 2004).
Achieving better corporate performance requires successful, effective and efficient exploit of organisation resources and competencies in order to create and sustain competitive position locally and globally. HRM policies on selection, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation, promotion, incentives, work design, participation, involvement, communication, employment security, etc must be formulated and implemented by HRM specialist with the help of line managers to achieve the following outcomes: competence, cooperation with management, cooperation among employees, motivation, commitment, satisfaction, retention, presence, etc
In fact, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) found a positive influence of human resource management practices (information sharing, extensive training, selective hiring, compensation and incentives, status differences, employment security, and decentralization and use of teams) on organisational performance as operational performance (quality, cost reduction, flexibility, deliverability and commitment). In furtherance of this assertion, Sang (2005) also found a positive influence of human resource management practices (namely, human resource planning, staffing, incentives, appraisal, training, team work, employee participation, status difference, employment security) on organisation performance.
For businesses to survive, HRM should be given its rightful place of relevance in any organisation and not left in the hands of line managers who neither have the expertise nor the time and space to carry out the enormous functions of a human resource manager.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The management of any organization be it profit or non profit oriented institution or organization is often faced with one common problem. This problem normally has to do with the efficient and effective utilization of resources for the attainment and of organization goals and objectives. The set goals and objectives clearly justify the existence of any organization and therefore its realization or non-realization determines the survival or untimely death of such organization. The need to realize organizational objectives imposed on management a variety of problems which management needs to tackle from time to time. It has often been
discovered that improper and poor management of human resources in organizations usually leads to problems such as.
1. High labour turnover
2. Low employee morale
3. Lack of job satisfaction
4. Reduced creativity and sturned growth on the part of the employee
5. Lack of employee motivation which often result in low employee productivity and
6. Reduce corporate profitability and threatened growth and survival
of the organization.
The effects of these problems on employee productivity and how it
could be reduced or eliminated completely to enhance productivity via
effective human resources management is what the research is set to
HRM has made significant inroads into the Nigerian corporate world. It is common to see large organisations in Nigeria set up a whole department for the sole purpose of managing human resources and hire experts in the field to be in charge of HRM. The enormous benefits of properly managing human resource cannot be over emphasised. However, the majority of the local government in Nigeria are yet to catch the “HRM cold”. Inappropriate HRM policies and practices of some of these banks can be attributed to the non-existence of HRM specialists or HRM departments. Research has established significantly a positive relationship between an organisation‟s HRM practices and performance. Most of these organization do not realise the impact of properly managing its human resource and therefore leave policies in the hands of line managers and board of directors who are non-HRM experts to implement or enforce strategies, policies, processes, programmes and practices. The value of properly managing human resources is lost to such rural banks.
Human Resource Management is extremely important for banks especially because banking is a service industry. Management of people and management of risk are two key challenges facing banks. How you manage the people and how you manage the risks determines your success in the banking business. Efficient risk management may not be possible without efficient and skilled manpower.
Organization has been and will always be a “People Business”. Though pricing is important, there may be other valid reasons why people select and stay with a particular bank. Organization must try to distinguish themselves by creating their own niches or images, especially in transparent situations with a high level of competitiveness. In coming times, the very survival of the Organization would depend on customer satisfaction. Those who do not meet the customer expectations will find survival difficult. Organization must articulate and emphasize the core values to attract and retain certain customer segments. Values such as “sound”, “reliable”, “innovative”, “close”, “socially responsible”, “Nigerian”, etc. need to be emphasized through concrete actions on the ground and it would be the Organization human resource that would deliver this.
1.3 Aim and Objective Of The Study
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of employees towards HRM practices in Beyelsa local government system and to establish the impact of such practices on organizational performance.
The main objectives of the study are to critically assess the productivity and human resource development in Nigeria Organization with a view to:
1) Identifying the importance of HRM to an organization in Nigeria
2) Identifying the need for HRM in an organization
3) Identifying problems associated with HRM in organizations.
4) Examine the trend and techniques of HRM in organizations
5) Reviewing the process of HRM and its impact on organization
6) Identifying the relationship between effective HRM and
7) Identifying the problems associated with HRM and prefer solutions
1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization?
2. What is the evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization?
3. What is the significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization?
4. What is the evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses are tested.
The researcher uses hypotheses HO which is a test of no difference
HO1: There is evidence to prove that work motivation and compensation contributes to the productivity of an organization.
HO2: There is evidence to prove that Ethics and Values contribute to poor productivity of an organization.
HO3: There is a significant relationship to show that work attitude of workers by workers affects the productivity of an organization.
HO4: There is evidence to show recruitment and selection process of workers affects the productivity of public sector organization
1.6 Significance Of Study
Human Resource Management is the backbone of any economy production of any nation.
HRM plays a vital role in the productivity of the Nigeria public sector organizations. It is therefore important to identify the significances of the research work which are subdivided as:
1. The findings of this research will serve as a guide in the productivity of other public sector through their human resource.
2. The findings of this study will enable for proper management of human resource
which will lead to effective customer value and productivity in public sector
3. It will also enhance government, private sector and general public participation
contribution in addressing these human resource management in public sector
4. The study will enable me to contribute my own views and ideas on managing human resource and productivity in the civil servant of Nigeria.
5. The study will be of immense help to other people and students who might wish to carry out other researches in the field.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The work is on Productivity and human resource development in Nigeria, with Civil servant as a case. It will cover the concept of productivity; examine Human Resource Management in Public Sector, the impact of HRM on Productivity in civil servant and also the challenges of Human Resource Management in Public Sector.
1.8 Limitations Of The Study
In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
1. The limitation of the research title as just HRM and Productivity in the Nigeria civil servant.
2. Financial Limitation.
3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving
1.9 Definition Of Terms
(a) Document study: Ikeagwu (1998:89), a document study refers to
the study of any written material that contains information about
the happenings that are being studied.
(b) Manpower: Harbinso (1998:106) refers manpower as human
being i.e. human resources of an organization for optional
utilization and attainment of organizational objectives.
(c) Manpower development: According to Kennedy (1961:57) this is
a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who
have educational skills and experience, and motivation which are
critical for economic and social development of an organization. It
includes investment by society in education, investment by
employer’s in training and investment by individual in time and
money in their own development.
(d) Productivity by (Mail, 1978:42) is seen as reaching the highest
level of performance with the least expenditure of resources. It
represents the output of goods and services which can be obtained
from a given input indices as manpower const/unit of output,
manpower cost as a ratio of sales, per employee and contribution
per employee. Internal and external either through reduction in number of mechanization by Bedium (1987:80).
(e) Training: Is defined as discipline and instruction which improve
character through exercises to achieve objectives or goals
efficiently. Rom Herzog (1977:102).
(f) Staff appraisal: Refers to critical performance appraisal it
plays important role in determine who has potential for
development (Banjoko, 1996:46). Each manager or head of
department filling a form over viewing certain areas of
performance of the subordinates normally carries it out. The form
which each manager is expected to complete in respect of the staff
has various columns for recording salient aspects of an employee’s
contribution over a period of twelve months.
(g) Compensation what the employees receive in exchange for their
contribution to the organization Kertk, (1996:8).
(h) Manpower Plan: Is action steps to meet manpower need. It is
specific action plan or blue prints for bridging the gap between the
forecast and the inventory to be met as a result of changes in the
existing workforce. Specific plans will have to be developed for the
recruitment training and transfer of the necessary personnel. Karek,