Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
In the dawn of this millennium where communication technologies have taken new and intriguing dimensions, television programmes have taken communication even to a much fascinating plane. The television has made it possible to receive and send information to and from far flung places with the speed of lightening. This study which centres on the effects of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents at Awka metropolis examined the negative and positive effects of the television programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. Research methodology used in gathering data and information for the study is questionnaire, presentation of data analysis, testing of hypotheses along with result discussions. The findings revealed that there is a high level of success by the ABS television business link in impacting the desired change in Awka residents and that Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link. It recommended that the Government should ensure that ABS television reach those who outside the state so that they can also benefit from it.
1.3 Background of the Study
Most people accept the idea the media can influence people but the degree of that influence as well as who is most impacted, how and why, have been the subject of great debate among communication scholars for nearly a century. Media effects refer to the many ways individuals and society maybe influenced by both news and entertainment. Mass media including film, television, radio, newspapers, books magazines, websites, games and music. Although in this study, the medium used is television.
Media effect has been studied by scholars in communication, psychology, sociology, political, science, anthropology, and education among other fields. Many early communication models designed to explain the process of message dissemination were simple-one-way and linear (Shannon and weaver, 1994), positioning the medium or message as the cause and the behavioural, emotional, or psychological response as the effect (Bryant and Thompson, 2002, pp. 4-5). Morden conceptualization, however, typically illustrate a two-way process that is more transactional or interactive in nature in which the message or the medium affects the recipient(s) , but the audience, in turn, influences and shapes the senders.
In the early part of the 20th century, concerns about political propaganda, manipulation by
the elite and the rising popularity of the electronic media led to the so called „cultivation‟ theory, which envisaged media message as strong drugs or potent weapon that could have powerful effect on helpless audience ( LA swell, 1991; Lippmann, 1992). However, while
these theories explained some behaviour, they did not account for the different responses individual may have to the same media source. In the 1950s and 60s, empirical research began to uncover the moderating power of predispositions and peer group, concluding that the media‟s impact was small often referred to as the „limited effect theory‟ (Klapper, 1960; Lazars Feld Bergeson, 1998 and Gaudet, 1998). In the 1970s and 80s, prominent scholars begins to look more closely again at the media relationship to knowledge, opinion, attitudes and level of violence, concluding that media effect could be significant in some cases even if not all powerful.. Scholars also came to agree that some vulnerable groups such as children may be more heavily influenced by media than others (Bryant and Thompson, 2002; Mc Combs and Shaws 1994; Mc Luhan, 2000).
The above leads to the medium of communication (ABS television) that will be used to influence the behaviour of Awka residents.
The word television (TV) is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots meaning „far sight‟. Greek tele, far and Latin Visio, sight. From video, (vis-to-see, or to view in the first person). It is widely used telecommunication used for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic (black and white) or colour. Usually accompanied by sound. Television has been regarded as a spontaneous, most effective media that can be used to disseminate information with a lasting impression on the minds of the audience. Television has made tremendous effort in broadcasting to the Awka residents because of its audio/video ability which is appealing to the viewer.
Awka is a city in Anambra state Nigeria with so many commercial trades. Some of these trades are ignorant of the best method of rendering services to the public. In Nigeria especially in Awka, most ignorant men and women are unaware of the kind of implication
of the kind of business they engage themselves in, that is why the television from the broadcast media was established to put such people in the right path.
With the creation of Anambra and Imo state in 1967, Anambra broadcasting service was born. The federal government acquired the television area of the station in 1977, re- baptised it Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABC). The radio wing was left behind, in1982, ABC radio 2 Onitsha was born.
Gov. Jim Nwobodo in 1981, established another television station. In 1985, the radio merged with the television with appellation, ABS radio/ TV Enugu. In 1991, ABS could boast of ABS radio 1 Enugu, ABS radio 2 Onitsha, ABS radio 3 FM Enugu, ABS TV channel 5-0 Enugu and ABS channel 2-7 Onitsha.
With the creation of the new AnambraEnugu states in 1991, and the subsequent disengagement of the staff on March 16, 1992, the Anambra broadcasting service (RITV) Awka.
After the state creation, the first movement was to Ontisha-4 park road- the location of our AM station. From Onitsha, the headquarters moved to St. Paul‟s university college Awka, in January, 1993. The movement continued to party house, okpuno in January 1994. However, Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) moved to its permanent site on the Enugu/Onitsha expressway in Awka in January, 2002.
There are three other operational areas:
• The broadcasting house at 4 park road, Onitsha.
• The television station at Awada.
• The booster station at Enugwu-Ukwu.
Anambra broadcasting service transmits on the following frequencies;
Television- ABS TV channel 27 Onitsha, ABS TV channel 24 Awka.
With two television and two radio stations, both at Onitsha and Awka, ABS can boast of wide coverage reaching out to neighbouring states e.g. Delta, Edo, Enugu, and Imo and beyond.
Even with Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) it is not certain the kind of impact it has on these commercial traders. For instance, Janis and Hovland (1959) discussed various factors associated with „persuasive‟ and suggested that „persuasive‟ effects might depend, amongst other things, on the prestige of the source, or on the significance of the message for the receiver, or on the attitude of the receiver to the source.
Also Kelman (1961) comes closer to this in his analysis of social influence, suggesting that three main processes might be involved in opinion change. One of these „compliance‟ refers to the acceptance of influence in the expectation of some reward or to avoid punishment „identification‟, occurs when an individual wishes to be more like the source and hence imitates or adopt behaviour accordingly. A third „internalization‟, is intended to describe influence guided by the receiver‟s own pre-existing needs and values.
The television could affect these traders positively or negatively. Therefore, for positive result, it is the job of the media houses to give well programmed and packaged information to the audience (commercial consumers and he consumer at large). These commercial activities of Awka residents are their major means of survival. So the commercial developmental programmes should be well broadcasted so that it will foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of arising creativity and inquisitiveness in the people.
Many researcher adopt functional approach to the study of communication process from the perception of the receiver rather than the sender (Wimmer and Dominick, 2003; 407). These researchers base their investigation on the „users and gratification‟. Theory of media effect which posits that audience do not take media messages for granted (Tsao and Sibley, 2004: 788-87) but is at least.
As active as the sender (Fiske, 1990: 151). Fiske Firther argues that the message is what the audience make of it and not what the sender intends.
For a successful programme, „programming‟ is needed. Programming and determine where to broadcast such material. Programming means determining the kind of programme to make, the belt or slot in which to bring them out, the target audience, the ratio or mix of other programme types in relations to the ones produced, the general objectives of each programme type.
In packaging a potent programme, the producer should endeavour to focus more on how the service of the broadcast media are of benefit to the audience rather than concentrating on the product features.
Media houses in Awka like Anambra broadcasting service (ABS) has its functions steamed from the understanding that it is the source from which the Awka residents choose what commercial trades suit them best and method of doing the business.
Nevertheless, there is no denying the fact that the effect of the television has on the Awka resident is powerful but sometime ineffective because of the location of some of the commercial traders. A recent study conducted show that some commercial traders especially in the rural areas do not have television sets to watch „ABS business television
link programme „while other prefer to get ideas for their trade themselves without the help of information from television.
The adoption of the „modus operandi‟ (mode of operation) by the three commercial traders can be seen in the method they use in approaching their business. One great difficulty for researcher is how to measure media effect. Television consumption may affect a person‟s thought, emotions or behaviour in ways could be direct or indirect, immediate or delayed, fleeting or lasting. It is impossible for scientist to control for all the mediating factors from levels of television consumption to demographics such as age, race, and socio-economic status, to harder to measure variables like environment, upbringing, values and previous experiences.
It is envisage that at the end of this study the outcome in formulating and packaging of television programmes for commercial traders, business men and women etc. it will give them the knowledge on the effect of ABS television business link programme on their commercial activities. All above, the study will increase existing and good talk shows on how to develop the commercial activity of Awka residents.
1.4 Statement of Research Problem
There has been a concerted effort by the Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) to create a positive impact on the Awka residents concerning their commercial activities for instance, the Awka television station, „Anambra Broadcasting Service‟ has used so many method to increase the growth of the commercial activities of Awka residents. These Awka residents include the sellers and the consumers of the goods and services. This medium communication (television) helps these people positively by giving them the right feel about a business or commercial activity of Awka.
Broadcasting programming is a problem in a broadcasting media i.e. Television. According to Olugboji (1997), little attention is paid to producing cultural relevant local programmes that could contribute meaningfully to the development of the society. The television station strives to give broadcasting to Awka residents on what suits them best in terms of the commercial activities.
In view of the effectiveness of television programmes in bringing knowledge and changes to Awka residents, it became evident to discuss its short comings which is to say that in spite of all the efforts made by the television station, it is not known for certain if this medium of communication is making an impact on people‟s lives positively.
Since research is systematic search for knowledge the primary aim of this study is to find solution to the envisaged problem of Awka traders. This is because proper identification to a problem directs the study.
1.5 Objectives of the Study
Needless stressing that everything we do is aimed at achieving some objectives. It is very true and applicable in this study.
In order to achieve the goals, the Awka residents should be well informed and motivated Anambra Broadcasting service (ABS) should primarily be:
1. To investigate the extent or level of successes business link programme have impacted on the commercial traders in Awka metropolis.
2. To monitor trends and development in production process with a view to arousing creativity and inquisitiveness in the people of Awka or the Awka residents.
3. To review business link programme impact on Awka residents including the traders and consumer i.e. the positive and negative effect on the people.
4. To know the capacity at which business link programmes affects the Awka residents, whether it attracts large audience or influence opinion and behaviour.
5. To foster the spirit of hard work and high productivity with the view of raising the quality of the life of the people.
1.6 Significance of the Study
In this study, it is imperative to know the significance.
The Awka commercial traders and consumer will benefit immensely from the research study in terms of gaining knowledge on how best to run their business and make gain. The research study will be an added information material for other electronic media researchers. The research study will also make room for developmental programmes and can create employment to the general public because they have been enlightened. It will make for increase in quality of programme production on how to develop ones occupation.
1.7 Research Questions
1. To what level of success does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme impact the desired change in Awka resident/ traders?
2. Do Awka residents expose themselves to Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme?
3. How do Awka commercial traders react to the Anambra Broadcasting Services developmental programmes?
4. How does Anambra Broadcasting Service television business link programme influence Awka residents commercially?
1.8 Research Hypotheses
H0: There is low level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka residents/traders.
H1: There is high level of success by the ABS television business link programme in impacting the desired change in Awka resident/traders.
H0: The Awka residents do not expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
H2: The Awka residents expose themselves to ABS television business link programmes.
H0: The Awka commercial traders react negatively to ABS television business link programme.
H3: The Awka commercial traders react positively to ABS television business link programme.
H0: The less influence the ABS television business link programme has on Awka resident commercially.
H4: The more influence the ABS television business link has Awka resident commercially.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms.
1. Impact: the impact of this study refers to any of the consequences of ABS television business link programme operation whether intended or not and its effectiveness in term of its capacity to achieve given objectives, whether this be attracting large audience or influencing opinions and behaviour or influencing opinions and behaviour.
2. Abs Television: in this study the ABS television which is a station owned by Anambra state government is a major contributor to direct change of individual opinion, attributes or behaviour or to be a direct cause of crime aggression or other disapproved social phenomena.
3. Commercial Activities: in this study, the commercial activity of Awka resident involves their means of livelihood. The kind of trade they do and are known for.
4. Business Link Programme: in this study, business link programme is a thirty minute programme that is aired on ABS television. It tries to promote small and medium scale business by going to their business places to interview them and then let the city know about their business.
5. Awka Residents: these Awka residents are to be studied in this research work.
There are over a million people within Awka metropolis.
1.10 Assumptions of the Study
In assuming the study, the likely are assumed and the action to take or how to go about such problem is assumed.
1. The television has been assumed to be the best medium to affect or influence the Awka residents. It is seen as the best that can be used to foster the spirit of hard work and productivity with the view of raising the quality of the people in terms of their commercial activities.
2. It has been assumed that effectiveness of business link programme depends on the presentation of business link i.e. if the programme is well packaged, if the times of the programme tallies with the time commercial traders are at home and if the presentation is perfect.
3. It is also assumed that the impact of business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents is positive but has its short comings too. These positive impact and shortcoming are studied to get the kind of effects that can influence the Awka residents.
1.11 Delimitations of the Study
The scope of this study boarders on the impact of ABS television business link programme on the commercial activities of Awka residents. It borders on the reaction of the residents to the programme.
This study due to financial constraints did not attempt going beyond Awka for its findings. In essence, this study covers only Awka residents. No consideration was given to other parts of Anambra states. There are some materials which one could not lay hands on during the research due to lack of time.
These factors were constraints to researcher which affected or influenced the researchers finding and recommendations in some way.