1.1 The Background Of The Study
Since the beginning of recorded time, people have travelled, and during their travels, have needed shelter. This consequently encouraged the springing up of some accommodation in form of inns and small hotels and subsequent larger hospitality suites, to meet such needs. This thus hospitality is said to be the world’s second oldest profession.
Just after the civil war in 1970, there was a virtual absence of hotels and especially, the well-known names in the international hotel industry in Nigeria. Not until the late 70‟s, during the oil boom era, did Nigeria start experiencing some growth in her hotel industry. In recent years however, Nigeriahosting of several major international events like the common wealth heads of government meeting (CHOGM), All African games, carnivals, meeting including the visits of two American presidents an other presidents with their entourage, has led to the building of several more hotels in Nigeria, especially in the major cities.
This growth is not restricted to Nigeria alone, example, the American food service industry in 1979 had 110 billion dollars of busing for meals away from home and was infact the third largest industry in the country in terms of gross retail sales, it employs about 6 million people and had average of 125. 42 employees in 1995 and yet still needs many additional employees every year.
Nigeria has since seen many important developments and changes in the relative improvement in the standard of living of a vast majority of working people. These improvements have come about as a result of many different factors including greater national productivity, stronger growth of economy, having more enlightened management and pressures from trade unions.
The contributions made by the hotel and catering industry to this general rise in standard of living are considerable, providing essential and leisure services, employment and wealth creation.
Hotel development in any country is a detailed process, requiring a high level of pre-planning prior to, during and after construction. There is still evidence in many places in Nigeria that this pre-planning has not adequately been carried out, resulting in some hotels that are unable to meet today‟s and tomorrows ever-changing and increasing customer needs, including the fact that demand far outstrips supply, with major cities like Lagos having now shortages. Nevertheless, Tourism, of which the hotel and catering industry is a principal element is said to be a potential growth sector in Nigeria.
The conditions of employment of a large number of the industry‟s staff have not kept peace with those enjoyed by working people elsewhere, in spite of the technical improvements within the catering industry itself. The reasons for the slow rate of improvement in the industry‟s condition of employment are considerable including an understandable reluctance on the part of many proprietors and managers to adjust labor earnings according to improvements in the industry. Another reason could be that trade union movements exert little influence in most sectors of the industry, since moreover most people that make up the industry‟s workforce are people who are not prepared to make a career out of the job.
The working conditions of the industry‟s staff are for most cases unattractive. There are intrinsic problems which are unavoidable such as having to work long evenings and weekends. Other problems however can certainly be removed or reduced by determined management action. Such problems are staff reliance on tips, ignorance of workers on methods of calculating pay and the distribution of service charges, and management‟s reluctance to involve staff in matters that affect their working lives. Management should therefore evolve a way of bringing out the best in these groups of ignored members of our workforce.
In Nigeria, there are many organizations that provide catering services and which by their nature can be termed hotels. It is estimated that there exists about 550 hotels, inns and commercial guest houses in Nigeria by the year 2008 that employs between 10 and 250 people in line with their sizes. It is said that about 418 – 900 people were employed in 2003 worldwide.
Tourism is a relative modern phenomenon. In western countries up to and beyond the Middle Ages, holidays for most people were just that religious festivals or ‘holy day’, which provided a welcome, break from daily toil. Such occasions would not however, have been seen as opportunities for people to travel. Going any great distance was difficult and potentially dangerous, and prohibitively expensive fuf’all but the rich.
As society gradually changed and economic improvements gave people more freedom, the idea of traveling grew in popularity. The roots of tourism can be seen in a number of historical developments over the last two hundred years.
By the 1 7 ‘ ~century increasing numbers of people were enjoying a greater degree of wealth and leisure time. Coupled with cultural environment that encouraged people to seek health cures, spa centre began to develop across Europe, wherever the local spring waters were believed to possess medicinal and other properties. In England and Wales, h s was reflected in the development of spa towns such as Bath. These early tourist venues were frequented by the wealthy elites and therefore provided elegant accommodation and entertainments such as tennis, bowls, theatres,
The 18Ih century saw the development of resorts such as Bath, which first made its name as a health resort, but also became popular as a social and pleasure resort. The standard of hospitality rose in response to the new demands from increasingly wealthy travelers. Travel was now undertaken for social and pleasurable purposes, as well as for reasons of bade and necessity. Seaside resorts developed in the latter part of the 1 8 century in response to a popular belief in the health-giving properties of sea bathing.
Some of the earliest hotels and boarding houses were built during this period in the resorts. The introduction of the steam locomotive and the development of the railways in the 19″ century revolutionized transport and produced phenomenal growth of sea-side towns. Large resorts such as Black pool and Bournemouth scarcely existed until the railway reached them.
For the first time, the large working populations of the industrial towns could reach the resorts easily and cheaply. Workers in the north of England could reach Black pool and Southport quickly, while Londoners could obtain ready access to resorts on the south coast. Hotels and boarding houses were built in tbek thousands. L? the cities, pod particularty at railway termini, large and sometimes palatial hotels were constructed.
These offered prestigious accommodation to the wealthy travelers. Some were large establishments with up to 500 rooms. Competition between hotels brought about a considerable rise in standards of service and comfort. Hotels became social centres for private dining and banqueting for groups of non-residents. The rise of the motor car as a means of transport in the 2oth century caused a new wave of development that did much to restore the traditional wayside inn. It also provided alternative access to the resorts and to the countryside where many hotels and guesthouses were to be found, for example, the Lake District. In the later part of the 20’ century,
the motor car and the airplane have become the dominant modes of travel.
These have led to new forms of demand for hotel and catering services.
Resort and city hotels tend now to be larger, especially where they are designed to meet the needs of international travelers arriving by air. In general, such hotels are designed to meet the needs of particular sections of the consumer market. For the car traveler a great diversity of hotels is available, from the luxurious country house hotel with fine restaurant to the modern budget hotel or motel with simple accommodation and service.
A hotel therefore, is an establishment that provides paid lodging, usually on a short-term basis and especially for tourists. Hotels often provide a number of additional guest services such as resiikants, swimming pools or childcare services. Some hotels have conference services and encourage groups to hold conventions and meetings at their location.
In the hospitality industry, the word “resort” refers to a hotel that offers not jrstl :”. ‘nigh standard of l ~ ~ umr y! extra amenities, but special recreational opportunities, either natural or man-made. The strain and stress of very rapid urbanization processes create the consistent need to “loosen up tight nut” and for an occasion to talk to oneself or to others as often happens in a recreational area.
For lack of such places, people rely on drugs or alcohol for social pleasures and fmd it difficult to derive pleasures without these artificial measures resulting into such neurological problem as hypertension and even crime. Fortunately, the public authorities in Nigerian are beginning to appreciate the role tourism could play in the vacuum created by poor economy, human life development and lack of attractive Resort Complex.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In an industry in Africa where there seems to have been a continued growth over the years, expertise is therefore expected to be limited and this constitutes a problem.
There and other problems are what the study wishes to consider and make recommendation where necessary. The problem reduction in experienced hands in this industry in the third world, seem to be the case due socio-economic benefit of hotel to the nation economic.
Another problem lies in the fact that most workers in the industry have no clear cut channels to register their protests and grievances since management usually stifles unionization agitation.
The third problem concerns the issue of how the basic payment and benefits of workers is commensurate with their dedication to work and efforts. As employers are less responsive to changes in the economy with respect to adjustments of pay and benefit packages in line with economic growth as being experienced in most developing countries today, including Nigeria, they are left with employees whose dedication to work decreases; with huge reduction in their morals and motivation to work.
We are also confronted with an environment where employees are usually kept in the dark without being enlightened on things they have the right to know. Example, payment determination method, criteria for promotion (etc), but rather such issues are based on the whims of management. This constitutes a problem.
The last problem is the general belief by most people that jobs in the industry is one of last resort which they can take up when they do not find a “better” job to do. This thus discourages young people who may wish to have a career in the hotel and catering industry.
Having identified some of the problems, this study intends to find possible solutions to some of them.
1.3 The Objective Of The Study
To this end, this study aims at assessing the reasonability of all the entitlements due or payable to that part of the labor force that works fully or partly in the hotel and catering industry. The objectives of this study are thus.
To examine the reasonability socio-economic benefit in hostel.
To assess the degree employment in this industry.
To evaluate the revenue creation of hotel for government.
To examine the industrial relations existing in the hotel under study and its impact on worker‟s welfare.
To identify the impact of inappropriate payment and employee benefit schemes or their absence altogether, on employee performance.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be raised:
1. To what extent is hotels impacts on the socio-economic development in Abuja and Nigeria at large?
2. To what extent revenue creation of hotel for government?
3. To what degree is management involved in the training and development of its workers?
4. To what extent does the degree employment in this industry?
5. To what extent is management responsive to changes in the economy with reference to the adjustment of payment and benefit packages in line with economic indicators?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis of this research work includes:
HO: Hotels have no impacts on the socio-economic development of Abuja and Nigeria at large.
HA: Hotels have impacts on the socio-economic development in Abuja and Nigeria at large.
1.6 The Significance of the Study
The study is significant for the following reasons:
To change the belief by some hotel management in the country that the formation of unions by employees may mean more trouble for them.
To bring to the fore, the importance of having pay being commensurate with efforts and productivity since the bulk of workers in this industry are after psychological needs but work in environments supposedly the exclusive reserve of self-actualized members of the society.
Ability to help reinstate the industry belle to its supposed place as a major part of the economy and as a potential growth sector.
1.7 Scope And Limitations Of The Study
The scope of this study is confined to the socio-economics benefit of hostel a case study of Transcorp Hilton Hotel. However, the findings of this study will apply to the hotel and catering industry in Nigeria. Major limitation to this study, is the limited worse by previous researchers on this subject, as well as managements hostility to questions and enquires.
1.8 Definition Of Special Terms
Hotel- An establishment held out by the proprietor to offer food and drinks, and if so required sleeping accommodation to anybody who is in a fit state to receive the services.
Fraudulent hotel- A hotel that caters for people, mainly travelers, while they are temporally away from home.
Residential hotel- These are hotels that provide full apartment type living facilities as contrasted with simple quest norms that lack facilities for cooking and eating within individual units.
Airport hotel- This serves to cater for travelers that use the airport.
Salaried- Employee- one who is usually paid monthly through bank and are mostly managers and senior supervisors
Full- time operatives: Usually working around a 30-45 hour week and who know they have a guaranteed pay, on a monthly basis in cash.
Resort hotel-Hotel situated along seaside‟s lakes or other natural geographical features capable of being integrated as part of the hotel.
Casuals- Workers normally working on a session basis, for instance on evening or afternoon, with no guarantees about future work, usually paid by one session in cash.
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