Design and Implementation of Road Transportation system using Nigeria as case study
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
1.1 Background of the Study
Although transportation has liberated man and makes him more mobile, his increasing reliance on vehicular movement has conferred great facilities on him and his activities. The greatest culprit of all the modes of transport is road of which traffic accident is the most disturbing repercussion of its use.
Road traffic accident is therefore an issue of great international concern as it has emerged as the single greatest source of death all over the world. In the developing countries where the number of motor vehicles relating to population is generally much lower than in the developed countries, fatalities from automobile crashes are higher. It has been shown, for instance, that accidents in developing countries cost almost one percent of these countries Annual Gross National Product utilizing scarce financial resources they can ill-afford to lose .
Nigeria, with a total land area of 910,771 square kilometres and human population of about 167 million, is the most populous country in Africa, and the 7th most populous nation in the world. Its large land mass and burgeoning population correlate with its high level of vehicular population estimated at over 7.6 million with a total road length of about 194,000 kilometres (comprising 34, 120 km federal, 30,500 Km, State and 129,580 km of local roads). Nigeria ranked as the country with the second largest road network in Africa in 2011. Its population density which varies in rural and urban areas (approximately 51.7% and 48.3% respectively) translates to a population- road ratio of 860 persons per square kilometres indicating intense traffic pressure on the available road network. This pressure contributes to the high road traffic accidents in the country .
The Nigeria situation has reached such an alarming proportion even to the point of sheer frustration and near helplessness. Nigeria continues to feature in the bottom half of World Health Organisation country rankings of road traffic accidents. The country‟s 149th ranking in 2009 out of 178 member states indicates the hazards associated with road transportation in a country that is largely dependent on its road network for economic, social and physical activities.
Indeed news of road traffic accidents in Nigeria no longer stirs any surprise. What may be shocking, however, is the magnitude of the fatality. Daily, Nigerian Newspapers carry news of road traffic accidents that are considered significant only in severity. Sometimes the papers sum up the number of lives claimed as if they were providing an expenditure account. e.g. “over 100 lives lost to fatal accidents in the Nyanya area in the last one year‟. Such news indicates that we live in accidents every day.
According to Sumaila road traffic accidents have claimed more lives than deaths resulting from all communicable diseases put together including the dreaded Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS). Thus, the government and people of Nigeria are deeply concerned about the continuing high rate of road accidents and the unnecessary consequential waste of lives and properties. What is worrisome is the fact that road traffic crashes and mortality rates are still high despite various remedial measures taken in recent years to combat the problem.
Transportation and property are important in physical and economic development of towns and cities all over the world. Property and land values tend to increase in areas with expanding transportation networks, and increase less rapidly in areas without such improvements. Rapid and continued rise in housing and land prices are expected in cities with transportation improvements and rapid economic and population growth .
Man, nations, regions and the world would be severely limited in development without transportation, which is a key factor for physical and economic growth . Transportation systems and land use are interdependent. Indeed findings of earlier studies indicate compelling and consistent connections amongst them . According to Bailey, Mokhtarian, and Littlel , transportation route is part of distinct development pattern or road network and mostly described by regular street patterns as an indispensable factor of human existence, development and civilization. The route network coupled with increased transport investment result in changed levels of accessibility reflected through Cost Benefit Analysis, savings in travel time, and other benefits. These benefits are noticeable in increased catchment areas for services and facilities like shops, schools, offices, banks, and leisure activities.
Road networks are observed in terms of its components of accessibility, connectivity, and traffic density, level of service, compactness, and density of particular roads. Level of service is a measure by which the quality of service on transportation devices or infrastructure is determined, and it is a holistic approach considering several factors regarded as measures of traffic density and congestion rather than overall speed of the journey .
Access to major roads provides relative advantages consequent upon which commercial users locate to enjoy the advantages. Modern businesses, industries, trades and general activities depend on transport and transport infrastructure, with movement of goods and services from place to place becoming vital and inseparable aspects of global and urban economic survival. Developments of various transportation modes have become pivotal to physical and economic developments.
Such modes include human porterage, railways, ropeways and cableways, pipelines, inland waterways, sea, air, and roads .
According to Oyesiku , urbanization in Nigeria has a long history in its growth and development. Extensive development being a feature of the 19th and 20th centuries, with concentration of economic and administrative decision-making in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Jos, and Enugu, and high degree of specialization and larger population associated with greater specialization of goods and services. Wyatt states that urban areas have tendency to develop at nodal points in transport network and places with good road network will possess relative advantage over locations having poor network. Urban locations with such relative advantage are found where different transport routes converge with high degree of compactness, connectivity, density, length and accessibility exhibited within the intra- and inter- urban road networks.
Ikeja is a typical example in the history of growth and development of cities in Nigeria. The city became capital of Lagos State in 1976 with improved road networks developed to cater for increase in concentration of pedestrian and vehicular movements. Similarly, commercial activities like banking, retail/wholesale businesses, and professional services congregated to take advantage of nearness to seat of governance. Concentration of activities attracted consumers and ancillary service providers. This partly caused increase in demand for commercial space and its concomitant effects on commercial property values along arterial roads in the metropolis.
The present position concerning commercial properties in Ikeja is that majority are located along arterial roads that deliver much of the vehicular and pedestrian movements. There have been increases in rental values along the individual arterial roads although not at equal rates. It is against this background that this research analyzed the arterial roads, determined the levels of accessibility, connectivity, traffic density of the individual arterial roads, examined the pattern of commercial property values and the relationship between the explanatory variables of the road network in Ikeja Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With respect to the road travel, it is important to evaluate the extent and quality of the road network. As be seen from a tour of rural areas, many roads that have been constructed, are in a terrible state of disrepair. As with so many things in post-oil-boom Nigeria, many rural areas are only accessible by car in the dry season. Certain stretches of rural roads are so bad that motorized vehicles have by-passed the original road way to form new dirt tracks, other portion of rural roads have been reduced to one lane. Thus, small areas decay can very rapidly expand under the forces of erosion and weathering in the rainy season. Much of the problems associated with the erosion of road ways are compounded by the lack of adequate drainage infrastructure (which also make driving hazardous during heavy rains). While Nigeria are not forced to address maintenance problems derived from recurrent freezing and thawing (like temperate area of the United States), they do have to deal with intense seasonal rain.
Another issue that directly relates to urban transportation is city planning, while the extent and effectiveness of planning in Nigeria cities varies to some extent, most urban areas are forced to deal with city regions where no formal planning was conducted. Hence transportation routes are often confined to pre-existing routes that may not always follow optimum courses. A diagrammatical example of planning done after development occurred in the city of Ibadan in 1980’s. Under military direction, city workers bulldozed swaths of houses and business, making ways for new streets. While this action probably improved traffic flow in certain part of the city, it clearly violated the human rights of the people affected by the removal process.
One area to be discussed is the issue of urban transportation. It is that of cost of transportation.
Another aspect of Nigeria urban transportation is the notable lack of public transportation. One final issue to consider with respect to cost of transportation is the cost of fuel. It is ironic indeed that oil-inch country such as Nigeria often has a scarcity of fuel.
The factors that contributed to the discontinuous supply of oil are the reduced production capacity of Nigeria refineries and price controls imposed by the Federal government.
It now remain a few words about inter-regional and inter-city transportation. First, most internal transportation is via land, many inter-urban land linkage are in good condition relative to rural-rural linkages.
1.4 Objectives of the Studies
The objective of the project work is to provide an on-line system which will help to speed up services rendered to customers. In the work I will aim at designing and implementing an on-line ticketing and travel reservation system. The presence of this on-line system will help to update file accurately, and reservation terminals can be linked to other office in the ITC transport.
After the data or information of a customer has been collected (this data includes; seat no, passenger’s name, time of arrival and departure time) they are processed by the computer, the output file when produce (which consist of passenger’s name, seat no, departure and arrival time) etc is updated and it is then used for report making or accounting. These report obtained from the updated file can be used for auditing by their board of directors.
1.5 The Significance of the Study
On-line ticketing increase the speed with which access is made to data. Hence data can be retrieved or processed when necessary. However, in on-line ticketing and travel reservation system data are:
i. Collected in full with accuracy
ii. Generated at appropriate time
iii. Kept up-to-date and accurate in file process properly, accurately to provide good information.
1.6 Scope and limitation of the Study
The extent to be covered in this project is the designing and implementation of on-line ticketing and travel reservation system.
The limitations are time and cost of transportation constraint, lack of fund in carrying out the project work and insufficient material such as textbooks.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
i. Browser: This is a program that allows user to access documents on the World Wide Web (WWW). Browsers can be either text or graphic.
ii. E-Ticket: E-ticket (electronic ticket) is used to represent the purchase of a seat for a passenger through a website. This form of ticketing is rapidly replacing the old paper tickets. It exists only as a digital record in the transportation industry.
iii. Graphics: This is the picture that computers display. Not text but just about everything else.
iv. Internet: Internet (international network of computer) is a system of computer network connected to one another from different parts of the world, forming a very large network. Internet is an example of global area network.
v. Online: This is when something is connected to a computer or controlled by a computer or to the Internet.
vi. Protocol: This is the agreed method computer used to communicate with each other. It can be also define as a convention or agreement between the operating system of two machines on what messages may contain.
vii. Reservation: This means arranging for a seat, ticket to be kept for the use of a particular person.
viii. Server: This is a program or a computer that responds to request from other program and delivers the requested document. It can also be defined as a central computer that supervises the control of the network activities of other computer on a network.
ix. Transportation: Is the means of traveling from one place to another.
x. WebPages: This is an individual page on the Internet. Every time you click on a link you are taken to a new web page.
xi. Website: It is a collection of related files this term describes a particular company’s users, or organization’s web pages served up by a web server.