1.1. Background Of The Study
It is said that health is wealth. The issues of health have overwhelmed our daily comments, since evolution of science.
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a recent recognized disease throughout the world, which is caused by the infection of the Human, Immune Deficiency Virus, which attack selected cells in the immune system and produces defects in function.
Human Immune Virus (HIV) and AIDS in Nigeria was first discovered in 1984 among researchers at the National Institution for Medical Research, Yaba Lagos.
The first evidence of AIDS in Nigeria was reported to health officials by Nasidi, and Heavy in 1986.
Against this background the federal government in conjunction with other countries of the world through the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to embark on massive campaigns against HIV/AIDS pandemic in rural areas and the nation in general.
Nigerian Television Authority Enugu as part of its efforts to eradicate this dreadful disease which seems to have defied Federal government’s efforts at combating it, then established the National AIDS control programmes in response to public concern
raised the awareness of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infestation in Nigeria.
For Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu to campaign on any issue of interest to the public, it must not be regarded as fallacious or unsystematically prepared but rather involving message on existing public interest to the people based on experience, facts, beliefs, socio-economic and educational backgrounds.
Despite the fact, the non-challant attitude the masses still prevails in relation, to accept the Role of NTA Enugu in the Campaign against HIV/AIDS as a complete truth. Moreover, one should not forget that it takes a lot of courage and grief to affect change in a society.
Though this study may not go into the structure of AIDS control programmes or the imminent dangers inherent in AIDS, it will look at the information management and the use of NTA Enugu to campaign to facilities proper public understanding of programme of will prove the degree of which the entire public have related to the HIV/AIDS campaign and to what extent these campaigns have helped alert the masses of dangers of HIV/AIDS.
Again in response to the evidence and the debate on the existence of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria the then minister of Health Professor Olukoye Ransom, Ikuti in 1987, instituted the National Expert Advisory Committee on AIDS (NEACA) and was charged with the responsibility of whether or not AIDS exist in Nigeria, they were also mandated
to advise the government as well draw up programmes strategies and activities to prevent control of HIV/AIDS infection in the rural areas.
The report from the committee stated that “HIV/AIDS existed in Nigeria and warned that unless immediate steps were taken to prevent the spread of the diseases, caused mainly by sexual intercourse. Sexual intercourse is largely responsibility for the transmission of HIV/AIDS from men to women and from women to men. People include rampant exchange of sexual parent for example sexual premiscurity are more vulnerable to have contributed immensely to the HIV/AIDS epidemics which is exculpating by lapps and bounds among teenagers world wide, receptive intercourse is more effective than other form of sexual activity transmitting HIV in homosexual men. It is because AIDS virus can be contacted in the anus of a carrier and through this act of sexual prevention.
Moreover, during blood transfusion, if the blood of a patient gets in hospital is not well screened for HIV/AIDS infection blood will surely contact HIV/AIDS, so it should be well screened, contaminated needles, when one needle has been used on a patient that has HIV/AIDS and the same needle is used on another patient who is free from the virus the person will later contract the virus through the use of contaminated needle.
According to Ernest Alhabu (1985-5 HIV/AIDS can be transmitted to HIV/AIDS free person who share the same tooth brush or razor or shaving stick with an AIDS infected person because blood from AIDS patient can easily get into the body of AIDS free person when such is being shared.
The rural are would be faced with tremendous health problem “this necessitate the establishment of AIDS co-ordinating units and twenty one testing facilities in the various states of the federation. Training was conducted for personnel to men these centres, there were also public enlightenment activities and production of educational materials like posters, hand bills, pamphlets and book on HIV/AIDS.
In February 1989, a two weeks workshop was organized by the federal ministry of Health and other human services organization including states ministries of Health with the technical assistance from the Global Programme on AIDS (GPA) World Bank and other international agencies to address the issue of AIDS in Nigeria. In March 1990, a resources mobilization meeting was convened with participation by the Health Federal Ministry of Health, by the world Health Organization, Global Programme on AIDS and other international denor agencies.
Also in March the National Aids co-ordinating units had the first “All Nigerian conference on AIDS during which the former vice president, Admiral August Aikomu (Ltd) launched the maiden edition of the Handbook on HIV infection and AIDS or Health workers. All these efforts were aimed at affecting possible solution towards ensuring the AIDS measure in Nigeria and to ensure Healthier environment for the populace.
Assertions have been made that the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a mere fallacy and government programme of securing people from enjoying sexual relationship-some ridiculous names, have been given the acronym AIDS, such as America, idea of dissuading sex, animal infected diseases syndrome and so on. It has
been discovered that the greater number of people infected by AIDS fall within the range of 20-40 yeas by age which is the prime age of life.
1.2. Statement Of The Research Problem
In spite of the increase in the number of people living with HIV/AIDS and the increase number of death recorded.
Some people still regard the existence of AIDS in Nigeria as a mere fallacy, yet the AIDS co-ordinated unit has proved that there is rapid emergency of HIV/AIDS infected persons in Nigeria.
1.3. Objectives Of The Study
1. Whether NTA Enugu Campaign against HIV/AIDS can create positive impact on Ezimo Community.
2. How have these campaigns either locally or internationally transformed Ezimo people towards sexual behaviours?
3. Whether NTA Enugu Campaign can modify the behavioral pattern of the people of Ezimo Community towards people living with HIV/AIDS.
1.4. Research Questions
1. How has NTA Enugu’s Campaign against HIV/AIDS impacted on Ezimo Community?
2. To what extent have these campaigns either locally or nationally transformed Ezimo Community towards sexual behaviours?
3. To what extent has NTA Enugu Campaign against HIV/AIDS modify the behavioral pattern of Ezimo Community towards people leaving with HIV/AIDS?
1.5. Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study is limited to NTA Enugu handling of HIV/AIDS issues in Ezimo Community in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State.
It is also limited to survey of the campaign against HIV/AIDS. This scope is going to centre on Ezimo Community and also based on time and financial constraints.
This study is based on the assumption that HIV/AIDS in rural areas, has hit the earth and many people have lost their lives. Also that NTA Enugu Campaign plays a key role in their effort to fight HIV/AIDS in rural area. Looking at the agenda setting theory of the mass media, which stated that the media do not only inform us but also influence us, whatever the press publishes and emphasis on, will be what the public will think about.
1.7. Significance Of The Study
This study is justified by the need to highlight the importance of NTA Enugu in the campaign against HIV/AIDS in rural area. It is noted that HIV/AIDS is fast spreading statistics show that infected persons are increasing on daily bases.
Nigeria like other developing or third world countries craves for development in the academic, political and social realm, to realize this, there is need to find out possible way of improving HIV/AIDS awareness programmes in rural areas.
1.8. Definition Of Terms
Some of the key words used in this research were defined operationally as follows:
Role: This means the part played by Nigeria television authority Enugu in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Ezimo Community.
Television: This means audio visual device used in educating, informing, motivating, entering and persuading Ezimo community.
Campaign: This means a series of organized action carried out in support of the advocacy for the fight against HIV/AIDS.
HIV/AIDS: This means a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus.
Rural Area: This means a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns with low population density and settlement.