EFFECT OF ETHNO-RELIGIOUS CONFLICT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS IN KADUNA STATE (A STUDY OF ZANGON KATAF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE)
March 27, 2019
Comparison of some data mining algorithms
April 6, 2019

Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
In this era of universal electronic connectivity, the possibility of theft of information by hackers and eavesdroppers is very high.
There is indeed no time at which security does not matter. The tremendous growth in computer systems and their interconnections via networks have increased the dependence of organizations and individuals on the information stored and communicated using these systems. There is a need to protect data and resources from disclosure and to protect systems from network based attacks. For secure communication over public network data can be protected by the method of encryption.
Encryption converts that data by any encryption algorithm using the ‘key’ in scrambled form. Only user having access to the key can decrypt the encrypted data.
Encryption is a fundamental tool for the protection of sensitive information. The purpose of using encryption is privacy (preventing disclosure or confidentiality) in communications. The main goal of cryptography is keeping data secure from unauthorized users. Original data that is readable and understandable either by a person or by a computer is called plain text whereas the data which is unreadable to human or machine is called cipher text. The technique to convert a plain text message into cipher text is called encryption (Paar and Pelzi, 2010).
Figure 1: Encryption-Decryption Flow
Encryption is a way of talking to someone while other people are listening, but such that other people cannot understand what you are saying. Encryption algorithms play a big role in providing data security against malicious attacks. In mobile devices security is very important and different types of algorithms are used to prevent malicious attack on the transmitted data.
Encryption algorithm can be categorized into symmetric key (private) and asymmetric (public) key.
In Symmetric keys encryption or secret key encryption, only one key is used to encrypt and decrypt data. In Asymmetric keys, two keys are used; private and public keys (Davis, 2003). Public key is used for encryption and private key is used for decryption (e.g. Rivest-Shamir-Adleman). According to (Elminaam et al., 2008), asymmetric encryption techniques are about 1000 times slower than Symmetric encryption which makes it impractical when trying to encrypt large amounts of data. Also to get the same security strength as symmetric, asymmetric must use a stronger key than symmetric encryption technique Public key encryption is based on mathematical function, computationally intensive and is not very efficient for small mobile devices (Alexandre et al., 2006). The present scenario uses encryption which includes mobile phones, passwords, smart cards and DVDs. It has permeated everyday life and is heavily used by much web application.
According to (Jeeva et al., 2012), Encryption algorithms play a vital role in information systems. The study discovers the progress of Encryption algorithms in terms of their diversity of applications. Some of the Encryption algorithms have been developed to make transmission and storage of data more secured and confidential. Different levels of securities are offered by different algorithms depending on how difficult it is to break them (Elminaam et al., 2010). If it is difficult to recover the plain text in spite of having substantial amount of cipher text then an algorithm is unconditionally secured. Dhawan (2002) compared the performance of the different encryption algorithms by conducting experiments inside .NET framework. This study provides evaluation of four of the most common encryption algorithms namely: Data Encryption Standard (DES), Triple Data Encryption Standard (3-DES), Advanced Encryption Standard (AES or Rijndael), and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA). The rest of this project has been organized as follows: chapter 2 presents the research focus, chapter 3 presents the methodology, chapter 4 presents the results and discussion and chapter 5 presents the conclusion.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This project examines methods for formally proving the security of cryptographic schemes. We show that, despite many years of active research, there are fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. We also present a new approach to one of the more controversial aspects of provable security.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The main of this study is to examine the comparative analysis of some cryptography algorithm.
Encryption or Cryptography have some goals that needs to be fulfilled for user benefit. Modern cryptography concerns itself with the following four objectives:
A. Confidentiality
The information cannot be understood by anyone for whom it was unintended.
B. Integrity
The information cannot be altered in storage or transit between sender and intended receiver without the alteration being detected.
C. Non-repudiation
The creator/sender of the information cannot deny at a later stage his or her intentions in the creation or transmission of the information.
D. Authentication
The sender and receiver can confirm each other’s identity and the origin/destination of the information.
E. Access Control
Only authorized users can access the data. This is done to avoid unauthorized user access.
A plain text is encrypted using an algorithm called “encryption algorithm”. A cipher text is decrypted using an algorithm called “decryption algorithm”. A key is used at the time of encryption and decryption process. The security level of cryptography is determined by the key space or key length (size of key).
1.4 Significance of the Study
This project presents a detailed study of the popular Encryption Algorithms such as RSA, DES, 3DES and AES. The use of internet and network is growing rapidly, so there are more requirements to secure the data transmitted over different networks
using different services. To provide the security to the network and data different encryption methods are used (Nadeem, 2006).
In this project, a survey on the existing works on the Encryption techniques has been done. To sum up, all the techniques are useful for real-time Encryption. Each technique is unique in its own way, which might be suitable for different applications and has its own significance. According to research done and literature survey it can be found that AES algorithm is most efficient in terms of speed, time, throughput, and avalanche effect. The security provided by these algorithms can be enhanced further, if more than one algorithm is applied to data. Our future work will explore this concept and a combination of algorithms will be applied either sequentially or parallel, to setup a more secure environment for data storage and retrieval.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This project is centered on the examine of comparative analysis of cryptography algorithms like DES, 3DES, AES etc.
1.5 Limitation of the study
Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in C#, ASP.NET and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
1.6 Definition of Terms
AES: The RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) algorithm is the most important public-key cryptosystem. It is best known and widely used public key scheme.
DES: Data Encryption Standard
Blowfish: It is also a symmetric block cipher. It can be effectively used for encryption and protection of data.
3DES: Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES) is the common name for the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA) symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the Data Encryption Standard (DES) encryption algorithm three times to each data block.
Cryptography: is the essential part of encrypting the important information and decrypting it to its original form.
SHA: Secure Hash Algorithm
Asymmetric Algorithm: is also called public key cryptography

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