1.1 Background to the Study
According to Reddi(2003,p.24), broadcasting media production and internethave always formed an important part of modern communication since the beginning of the twentieth century. From print to radio, television and even modern day web enabled e-learning, each medium has been seen as a potential solution to the problems, inadequate and certain ills of education. Invariably, the place of media in education has been twofold: to increase the reach and thereby access; and to enrich the quality of educational content.
Radio and Television are the key broadcast media, and still retain the comparative advantage of being able to serve dispersed, isolated, and disadvantaged communities aspiring to overcome the barriers of illiteracy and physical disadvantage in many countries especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. They are therefore, pivotal in educational broadcasting.
Educational broadcasting has been defined variously but Reddi (2003,p.25, explain educational broadcasting as meeting specific objectives and needs whether these are in the area of development related issues, basic education or in support of educational content. The scope of educational broadcasting is indeed general, targeted at broad audiences and meant to create awareness on issues of public interest and provide enriching content.
Given that broadcasting media production and internet have been linked to the creation of communication system that can reach wide populations, educational broadcasting has been identified with development and nation building. James (2016,p.5), to assert that inherent the mass media has been put to the fore front of the fruits to be reaped or as an objective for the development of the mass media. According to Kats and Wedell(1977,p.34), for instance in installing colour television the government of Zanzibar had stressed that emphasis was on education in the wildest meaning of the word, including instructional programming, vocational guidance, home educational and dissemination of healthy political ideas. Also, a Uganda government report cited in James (2016,p.5), had recommended that broadcasting media production and internet are to be instruments not only and perhaps not even primarily for the entertainment but for the enlightenment of the population for their instruction in public health, agriculture and other sector. Because educational facilities seem not to be enough to satisfy the demands of the growing population of school age children especially in developing countries the (media, particularly the broadcast media) have increasingly been seen as a substitute (or even a compliment) for this formal education. This has helped advancement in technology that has further made the broadcast media more accessible.
Given the growing importance of educational broadcasting, this research project therefore, is a comparative study of broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduates in the University of Calabar.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Generally speaking, developing countries such as Nigeria, are characterized among other indicators by low per capital income, poverty and general lack or weak infrastructure and infrastructural support services, and a general low level of development. Expectedly, broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduates in the University of Calabarhas been taken up very enthusiastically in the developing countries James (2016,p.5). This enthusiasm was perhaps hinged on the modernization theorist such as Schramm (1964,p.34), which saw the media (including the broadcast media), as vital as their efforts towards development. The media are seen as substitute or at least a complement to the lecturer, and where books were scarce and printing too slow or even lacking as is the reality in many developing countries, one text book used by a lecturer on television or radio could suffice for a multitude of students across a wide spectrum of the country.
However, and for various reasons, this enthusiasm did not seem to match the reality on ground. Many problems have plagued broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduates in the University of Calabarin for instance, in Nigeria the Federal Ministry of Information (FMI) report (2016), about schools broadcast, found out that the audience has been disappointingly small due mainly to “unsatisfactory reception, faulty receiver, inadequate publicity for the services and inconvenient time table.” The report equally considered the high proportion of untrained teachers in the primary and secondary schools as well as teacher training colleges as limitations to educational broadcasting services of the broadcast media. According to the FMI (2016) report the introduction of broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduate services was considered of great value to Nigerian educational system provided: “the broadcast are of high quality, a high standard reception is achieved, and the broadcast are intelligently used in the classroom.”
Therefore the internet and its broadcast content has affected academic performance through providing the students with already cooked materials leaving them with no idea of their own. In the light of this problem, the researcher seeks to solve this problem.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this research project is a comparative study of broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduates in the University of Calabaras case study. Other specific objectives include;
1. To ascertain the adequacy of broadcasting media production and internet programmes on undergraduates.
2. To ascertain the challenges of broadcasting media production and internet in Nigeria.
3. To determine the policy/implementation options that can promote a more efficient broadcasting media production and internet in Nigeria.
4. To make appropriate recommendations arising from the research.
1.4 Research Questions
Consequently upon this rather grim observation, the following pertinent questions arise.
1. What is the adequacy of broadcasting media production and internet programmes on undergraduates?
2. What are the challenges of broadcasting media production and internet in Nigeria?
3. What are the policy/implementation options that can promote a more efficient broadcasting media production and internet in Nigeria?
4. What are appropriate recommendations arising from the research?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The mass media have over the years formed an important part of modern education. Without doubt, modern communication exposure to information through the media have implications on education. Among other channels of communication, there are in fact, more educational programmes on radio and television, so much so that, modern communication has now become part and parcel of the learning process Olagunju (2008,p.44). According to Zhu and Zhou (2002,p.18), even the establishment of television was predicated on education reasons; the motion of having educational broadcasting and internet was well received because it was an initiative that had immersed benefits given proper implementations. Schramin Zhu and Zhou (2002, p.34), that “television is an efficient tool for learning” however from both radio and television (broadcasting) each medium has been seen as a potential solution for the problems, inadequacy and certain ills of education. According to Reddi (2003,p.24), “the purpose of inducting media into education has been two folds: to increase the reach and thereby access; and to enrich the quality of educational content”. Radio and television media still retain the comparative advantage of being able to reach isolated and disadvantaged communities aspiring to overcome the barriers of illiteracy and physical distance in many countries (including Nigeria) (p.25).
Broadcasting media production and internet in a way have been identified with development and nation building. For instance, a Twinning report (1939) cited in James (2016,p.5), recommended that “radio broadcasting was to be an instrument not only, and perhaps, not even primarily for the entertainment, but for enlightenment of the population for their instruction in public health, agriculture among others.
In sub-Saharan Africa in particular, education, information and entertainment have continued to be the main functions of radio and television broadcasting. There have been efforts to utilized broadcasting to espouse values and ideas on equality, rights, democracy, economy, development and cultural integration but, according to Reddi (2003,P.43), success has not been significant (for various reasons) including government restrictions on what is transmitted. According to Reddi (2003,p.43) Nigeria has television systems but importance given to educational television (educational broadcasting) is minimal. Given the foregoing scenario, this research project attempts to ascertain the comparative study of broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduate in the University of Calabar.
1.6 Scope / Delimitation of the Study
This project is “A comparative study of broadcasting media production and internet on the academic performance of undergraduate in the University of Calabar”. Though country and worldwide references shall be cited in the literature, the project analysis shall be based on information obtained from respondents in the study area, from which relevant inferences shall be made.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encounters some difficulties in the process of the study. These difficulties include the time frame for which the research was to be completed. Another limitation to the study was funds; there were limited funds at the disposal of the researcher. This made it impossible for the study to be expanded to include a larger study area. Apart from the above limitations, the issue of text on the subject matter is another problem. Text on the study is limited thus; there is a transposition of focus from other areas to enrich the literature reviewed.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Broadcasting is the making and transmission of radio and television programmes. The Encyclopaedia Britannica defines broadcasting as the primary means by which information and entertainment are delivered to the public.
Internet is any set of computer networks that communicate using the internet protocol (an intranet) and is the largest global access to the internet.
This can be seen as the journalists and other professionals who comprises the mass communication industry.
The impacting and acquiring of knowledge through teaching and learning especially at the school or similar institutions.