1.1 Background of the Study
Child trafficking is the third largest criminal activity in the world after arms and drug trafficking. In the last decade, the phenomenon of child trafficking has considerably increased throughout the world and most especially in Nigeria. Every year millions of individuals, mostly children are misled by decoct or forced to submit to servitude. The UN convention Against Transnational organised crime (2000) defined child trafficking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of power, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
ANPPCAN (2010) sees child trafficking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of children by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power, a position of vulnerability or the giving or receiving of payments, benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over the child for the purpose of exploitation.
Research evidence shows that children are trafficked for the purpose of domestic services, prostitution and other forms of exploitative labour (UNICEF, 2007). These has been a serious concern about the cause of child trafficking in Africa as a whole arrnd Nigeria as a country in particular. UNICEF (2007) has identified poverty, large family size rapid urbanization among others as the major factor why many Nigeria children are vulnerable to trafficking. Parents with large family are often prone to those traffickers deceit in giving away some of their children to city residents or even strangers promising a better life for them. Trafficking deprives child victims the privilege to exercise their wide range of rights, including the right to belong and identify, the right to freedom, education among others.
ANPPCAN,(2010).There is no limit to the study of media and society. Media and society as a subject covers a wide range of issues. Communication has a lot to do with the individual. It effects and defects are so notable that they cannot be swept under the carpet. Media and society are interwoven and neither of them can exist without the other.
Tola, (2008) position that Child trafficking is an ugly fact of our society that is prevalent even today. Child trafficking is a world-wide problematic issue. Over the years, it has metamorphose into frig teeming growth rate, having reached its peak and without showing sign of reduction in parts of Africa, Eastern, Europe, the Caribbean’s and Latin American countries. It is crucial to note that the increase on the cases of child trafficking in Nigeria is due to the undaunted efforts of the operators and profiteers of the business who are quick to cite unprecedented poverty and the near absence of the basic necessities of life as their driving force.
Child trafficking has brought poor reputation in the state. our main economic problem is child trafficking., since we began on the path of nationhood or society. The main obstacle for striding bodily on this path has been the child trafficking problem because of unemployment. As a result of this, there has been for the past few years steady drift away of young men into other countries. This has the chain result of our society being left under populated or underdeveloped.
Fiske (1990) defines communication as “social interaction through message” Jaya- Weera (1991) sees it as an interaction process through which persons or groups relate to each other and share information, experience and culture. Looking at the above definitions communication can be said to be the transferring or transmitting of ideas, attitudes and information from one person to another. Okunna (1999) throws more light on the above assertion when she says “to communicate basically means to share ideas information, opinions, feelings or experiences between people?
In curbing this ugly situation in Nigeria the print media have a role to play. According to Okunna (1999) the print media perform a number of functions, which benefit the individual as a member of a society. These functions are as well applicable to the role of print media in curbing child trafficking in Nigeria. Okunna goes on to say that these functions range from serious informational and educational functions to lighter functions entertainment which is discussed below:
1. Information:-This is the constant stream of information about event in the society. Among the positive consequence of this function is the guidance it gives to the individuals in his or her daily life.
2. Interpretation:-This is the function of appropriately interpreting news and information in such as way as to avoid over sensitization and induce appropriate or necessary action. It includes prescribing what to do, how to do it and why it is necessary.
3. Education:- The mass media help unify society and increases social cohesion by upholding teaching a broad base of common social norms values and collective experiences. The print media do this transmission mainly through informal education (unconscious learning) and non- formal education (conscious attempt to impart knowledge outside the formal school system).
4. Entertainment:-This is the mass media function that is geared towards providing some diversion and amusement, relaxation and respite.
The print media is known as the watch dog of the society and with the information and education function, it will be known if the print media has played roles in the campaign against child trafficking in Nigeria. This is because like the dry rot that eats away the wooden beams of a house, child trafficking can corrode the whole structure of society. For human society to function properly, it must have stable families, healthy workers, and trustworthy governments, honest polices and law abiding citizens.
The home however is probably where child trafficking do the most damage. Parents who are distracted by their craving for drugs rarely provide their children with a stable home life. Many children who grow up in this environment take to the streets or even get involved in drugs themselves.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Children living in rural areas in Nigeria often lack access to quality education, good health and other basic needs which make their parents to entrust them in the hands of other family members who are financially upright to help them train their children. However, this custom has been abused by those family members or relatives because of the exposure of these children to hazardous work, prostitution and other forms of inhuman activities. This act poses a serious challenges to the growth of the Nigerian society.. Such problems call for in-depth research to help salvage the situation to avoid the setback it created for our society. In eradicating this ugly situation it is assumed that print media have a crucial role to play. Though the assumption is lacking empirical evidence that motivate this researcher to find the way forward to the assumption and such role can be a vehicle to curb child trafficking in Nigeria.
1.3. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is:
i. To examine the causes of child trafficking in Nigeria
ii. To analyse the effects of child trafficking in Nigeria.
iii. To proffers solutions to the problems of child trafficking in Nigeria.
iv. To ascertain the role of print media in curbing child trafficking in Nigeria.
1.4. Research Questions
i. What could be the causes of child trafficking in Nigeria?
ii. Does peer influence positively promote child trafficking?
iii. What are the effects of child trafficking in Nigeria?
iv. What is the role of print media in curbing child trafficking in Nigeria?
1.5. Significance of the Study
This study will be of great importance, as it will provide necessary information on the causes, effects and remedies to child in Nigeria. It will also provide further research in combating trafficking in Nigeria. The study will also be useful for further purposes and for further researches into child trafficking within and outside the country.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study will be restricted to the causes and effects of child and the role print media play in curbing child trafficking in Nigeria.
1.7. Limitations of the Study
This study has some limitations. There is the problem of data scarcity because it was not easy for the researcher to get as much information needed.
This research required a lot of money, if it had to be extensive and elaborate; such amount of money was not at the disposal of the researcher.
Finally, because the study was carried out a time school was in session, it placed some constraints on the researcher. Other academic works also placed much demand on the researcher’s time. Consequently, the limited time at the disposal of the researcher was shared between these tasks. There was no much time for the researcher as it has to be carried out within a time schedule.
1.8. Operational Definition of Terms
Child: Child in this study means any person less than eighteen
Years of age
Trafficking: The recruitment, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of a
Child for the purpose of exploitation.
Print Media: This means the means of communicating with large numbers of people through hand bills and bill boards.
Child trafficking: Dealing on children of underage illegally.
Campaign: This means avenues by which the print media is carrying out its role in the fight against child trafficking e.g. through seminars, workshops or programs.
Mass media: These can be defined as channels of information dissemination simultaneously to a large, heterogeneous, anonymous and scattered audience. They primarily include newspapers, magazines books (print media) radio, television, the internet (electronic media), bill boards and posters (outdoor media).
Coverage: This is the range or quality of information reporting by print media.
Prominence: this refers t the important or value the mass media attach to the reportage of crime in Nigeria. In other words, is the perception of media in reporting terrorism.
Harbouring: A place of shelter for ships
Fraud: Dishonest dealing, one who pretends to be other than he is.
Exploitation: The act of making use of selfishly.
Poverty: The state of being poor.
Prostitution: This is the act in which a woman offers the use of her body for sexual intercourse to anyone who will pay for this.
Drugs: Substance used for medical purpose, either alone or in a mixture.
Abuse: Wrong use of something, like drugs.
Bond: Agreement or engagement that a person is bound to observe, especially one that has force in law, document signed and sealed, containing such an agreement, enter into with somebody.