the appraisal of use of media transmission in combating HIV/AIDS circulation

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that affects the immune system undermining the body’s ability to defend itself from infections. HIV/AIDS is having a disastrous impact on social and economic development especially in the rural areas. Over 50 million people are affected world wide. It is very apparent today that without relevant and constant information on HIV/AIDS, the disease will continue to spread and also continue to claim the lives of many people especially the younger ones and those in the rural areas. Government and non-governmental organisations are working so hard to see that people are properly enlightened and properly informed and properly educated on the dangers associated with the disease through the available medium of communication like radio, newspaper, magazines, television and even oral communication so as to control the widespread of the disease.
1.1 Background of the study
AIDS was first identified in 1980 among homosexual men and intravenous drug users in New York and California. Shortly after its detection in the United States, evidence of AIDS epidemic grew among the heterosexual men, women and children in sub-Saharan Africa and quickly developed into a worldwide epidemic infection till today. News reported on daily basis has it that the disease affects some countries more than others. For instance, more than 95% of all infected people live in the developing countries including Nigeria. According to united nation’s report on HIV/AIDS, in the disease have sapped the population of young men and women who form the foundation of the labour force which makes her to be the second most infected nation in the world. This indeed reached a crises proportion in a country already burdened by political crises and unrelenting poverty.
When HIV/AIDS first entered Nigeria, it sounded abstract and appeared to only be a tale. Nobody believed then in the widest of thought that shortly thereafter, Nigeria will become a manager of an apparently unending tragedy because, today the devastating effect of HIV/AIDS can only be imagined. According the united nation’s report on AIDS in (2007), Nigeria has about 5 million cases of HIV/AIDS.7% out of the total number of reported cases are from Kaduna state most of whom are from the rural areas.
Kaduna state is a vast area that comprises of different ethnic groups, communities and local government areas. Some of the remote areas include Hayin-danyaro, Bassawa, Jama’a, Saka-dadi etc. the people living in these areas are mostly farmers and students. In these areas the disease has claimed the lives of many especially the younger ones who form the foundation of the labour force. It is probably because the level of awareness on how to control its widespread is not enough that it still remain a mystery. The people have not changed their attitude towards the disease and still thinks that HIV/AIDS figures are exaggerated thereby dwelling so much on myth and misconceptions about the origin, existence and prevalence. This has however become a source of concern to the local authority on the attitude of the people. It is in view of this that several means of and ways of combating the circulation of the disease through the use of mass media transmission has been devised.
Mass media is a means of communication by which visual or audio messages are transmitted directly to the audience. Examples of mass media are Television, Radio, Motion pictures, Newspapers, Magazines, Books and bill boards, oral communication etc.
According to Stuart Chase (1957) mass media is that which amplifies a message usually a message from some persons or group of which, instead of reaching one individual, the message reaches a thousand, millions and even billions of people far more rapidly and much louder. He went further to classify the media as follows:
(a) Words through the audience read: examples are the news paper, magazines pamphlets, notice boards, textbooks etc.
(b) News through which the audience hear: this includes radio, public address system, sound tracks, sky broadcasting records etc.
(c) Pictures to see (with words on the sides): this includes moving pictures, television, documentaries, newsreels, photographs and comics.
The above listed can be used as media in the following ways: straight news dissemination, education, enlightenment, sensitization, advertisement, publicity etc. If the above listed is true, then it an actual medium which should be recommended in curbing and controlling the circulation of HIV/AIDS.
1.2 Statement of Problems
HIV/AIDS is a disease that is having far-reaching effect on societies, communities and individuals. Socially, people are dying and families are affected. Economically, labour hands are being lost and worst of all, women and children especially those in the rural areas are mostly affected.
The disease is real and because of the dangers associated with it, we cannot afford to stand aloof. It is very apparent today that without relevant and constant information on HIV/AIDS, the disease will continue to spread and also continue to claim the lives of many people especially the younger ones and those in the rural areas. Government and non-governmental organisations are working so hard to see that people are properly enlightened and properly informed on the dangers associated with the disease. In view of this, the research is set out to find out the extent of use of the mass media transmission as well as the role it is playing in the area of controlling and combating the wide spread of the disease in Hayin-danyaro, samaru area.
1.3 Research Questions
1. How useful is the media transmission when it comes to combating and controlling the circulation of HIV/AIDS?
2. How often and regular are these media being made used of in receiving and transmission of information?
3. Do the people really understand the information on HIV/AIDS that is being transmitted?
4. What their reactions on the information they receive through the media?
1.4 Assumption of Study
The following null hypothesis will guide this research.
1. In a community like Hayin-danyaro, people do not rely on the media transmission for acquiring information especially on HIV/AIDS.
2. They receive information on HIV/AIDS at the wrong time when most of them are busy and where these media resources are not available.
3. Due to ignorance, misconception and poor understanding, most information through these media are misinterpreted.
1.5 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this research as an academic work is to find out the use of media transmission in combating HIV/AIDS transmission in Hayin-danyaro. The study aims at making recommendations that could enhance and facilitate the use of media transmission in creating awareness and controlling the circulation of the disease in the community.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study aims at achieving a very significant goal. At this time when HIV/AIDS is fast spreading killing a lot of people especially the young people in villages, cities and nations, a lot must be done in order to salvage the situation. Therefore, it is expected that this study should be of immense importance not only to the selected area under study but also, to the entire nation because it is a national pandemic.
Secondly, this study will contribute in a unique way to the growing literature now that HIV/AIDS has become a global pandemic.
1.7 Scope and Limitations
The research focuses its attention on Hayin-danyaro as an area selected among other areas in Kaduna state. The purpose is to find out the use of media transmission in combating HIV/AIDS circulation. The study does not cover the whole area because of some factors such as time and finance.

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