1.0 Introduction and Background to the study.
1.1 Background to these studies, these which cover the given period of our studies 1999- 2015. The state of affair in 1999 was and should be consider critical both Economical and Political, Nigeria and Lagos in 1999 was faced with a great transition from Military led government to her present DEMOCRETIC dispensation.
Prior 1999 the country and Lagos had been under different military dictators for decades, but importantly in 1999 through the handover from military to civilian Lagos was govern by Col Buba Maruwa, thou before this time Lagos was the sit of power for the federation before being moved to Abuja the federal capital territory in 1991 by the dictator military president Gen Ibrahim.B.Babaginda based on the reason of a Master plan for Abuja and the Congestion accused Lagos to be and finally for the fear of a possible external attack on Lagos based on its coaster endowment.
Lagos the Metro-Politian state as it was called before the change of name to Mega-City based on growing Demography and the Lagos Atlantic State of the 21st century in West Africa itself.
In 1999 Lagos Populations could be said to be around 10.5 million with an estimation of it getting to 22 million in the year 2020 as the figure keeps changing. Demography of Lagos at 17.5 million although this number has been disputed by the Nigerian government and found to be unreliable by the Nigerian National Population Commission which put the figure at over 21 million in 2016. Lagos is endow by mother nature with the coast and link to the Atlantic open sea and above all, many inland water ways that has not been annexed to its core even in the face of model technology.
Furthermore, we should take a mile on the existence Jetty and Ferry, were run at various time by the Inland Waterways division of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Lagos State Transport Corporation and the private Company(Texias Connections, Seacoach just to name a few) and many other little once. But more are Owen by either the state government or the federal agency within Lagos waterways. Ferry Operators in Lagos has increased of late based on the springs of new towns and settlement within the Mage-city.
From CMS Marina ferry operators and passenger could access other area and jetties within Lagos. However these are list of their Route/Connections.
Ikorodu – Lekki
CMS Marina – Apapa
CMS Marina – Mile 2
CMS Marina – Ikorodu
CMS Marina – Tarkwa Bay
Ebute Ero – Oyingbo
CMS Marina – Ijora
Alex (Apapa) – Ibitoko and Ogogoro Village
Coconut (Tincan Port) – Ibilogo Island
Navel Town (Ojo) – CMS Marina
Navel Town (Ojo) – Badagry .
Importantly prior our period of studies which is 1999- 2015, these where their Routes
CMS Marine – Apapa
CMS Marina – Mile 2
Ebute Ero – Oyingbo
CMS Marina – Ijora
And the agencies responsible for these services are Inland Waterways Department (IWD) FUMTP, LSFSC.
1.2 Statement of the problems.
Developing city like Lagos state is not yet to understand that there are various problems hindering the Ferry Business in the state and these certain problems have hindered the Inland Waterways sector for years without any policies or methods created to curb or solve these problems. Some of these problems faced by the Ferry/Jetty operators and their passenger could be place in these following orders.
• High Ferry Transportation cost due to high fuel prices, high inflation etc has led to a depreciation process.
• Poor maintained of navigable Inland Waterways in Lagos state.
• Poor maintained of ferry and jetty in Lagos state, which are either damaged due to poor maintenance and low returns from both operators and government agency.
• Low customers patronages the ferry operators and multiple tax collected from the private operator by many government agency.
The high ferry transport cost due to high fuel price or high inflation which is a broad problem plays a massive role in the Inland Waterways and making it difficult for passenger to afford. There has been an increased depreciation on the choice to use ferry at a high cost and short trip then the usual cost Bus usage at a longer trips indigenes or people who reside in Lagos state would therefore prefer to use the Buses in the likes of BRT, Dafo, Bikes, and even Keke which are cheaper and are better quality then the ferry service these therefore kills the sector and business operators in general.
The poor maintenance of the navigable Inland waterways in Lagos state is another point to worry about, the inland waterways network in Lagos state is also a problematic that has plagued the sector in Lagos and other state that has navigable waterways due to the ignorance of the water value by the general public that led the continuous dumping of solid refused into the cannas that flows to the lagoon and the open sea, the short coming or failure of government and it many agencies charged to the clearing of the cannas, lakes and lagoon from these above obstacle, these directs and waist end up blocking the free flows of waters and keep flowing on the channel that it course many damages to the engine of the ferry and boats operators. These had led to a swift reduction of operators and great monopoly from the few ferry and boat operators and the aftermaths is hike or increased in the prices this problem therefore lead to low productivity and poor patronage because in some case maybe its takes longer time to sail.
Poor maintenance of ferry and jetty in Lagos state, these has affected the ferry business greatly to both those operated by the state government (Lagferry) and those by individual company. Reason for these many blame it on the low or poor patronage of the public with little as their return they tin not to fix their ferry but pay salaries of staffs on the roll, also give government a tax return in many experience they are left with nothing as their take home profit these which in turn tells on their poor maintenance of their primary source of income (ferry and boats). From 1999 to 2007 same was the story for many individual till many Intervention programmed introduce by the state government and continued afterwards.
Low customer patronage to the ferry operators and the multiple tax payment from the private operators by the many government agency and too many unknown persons. From a personal experience and trip taken as regards this research and academic work, within many area where ferry and boats are accessible, we could tell the story of a longer time spent on wait for follow passenger to bored the ferry in many a time those run by government agency keep their passengers at wait for hours until the ferry is fill to a capacity before they sail. Whereas the private ferry and boat owners sail with little or no passengers in their boats, based on the size and capacity of passengers already in their boats they are going to sail still, many persons end up using the private ferry for a quicker trip at a higher price and cost. Like the injury is not enough we see difference persons on uniform of one government agency or another coming to take tax from them. These they don’t take from those ferries own or operated by government. So annoying that at a single trip by those private ferry owners that they realized two thousand six hundred naira,(#2600) one thousand two hundred naira (#1200) was taken away from the operators by those uniform men and even by some unknown person who clan ownership of the area (Omo-onile) these money taken from both the inland waterways operators and the road transport operators had never been accounted for which end up in an individual pockets. The state government and those in authority have always known about the tragic extortion that had cripple business and force too many out of business in a society that faced economic recession and great job lose that which a few individual has always taken away from them.
With all these problems mentioned we are able to see that a broad problem facing the ferry business and the inland waterways sectors of Lagos state is the problems of high transportation cost, the role of transportation cost has grown profusely over the year and it has being greatly undermined, as ways or methods of cutting these cost haven’t been activated or created. Hence, if a research is undertaken on the impart of ferry business on the social economic importance in Lagos state, we are able to understand the true importance of the ferry business in a future mega city like Lagos state.
1.3 Objectives of studies:
The broad objectives of this studies is to investigate the impart of ferry business in Lagos state.
The specific objectives of this study are as follow.
• To investigate the effectiveness of ferry business on the movement of persons and goods
• To investigate the effect of other means of transportation (Bus and Rail) on the movement persons and goods in Lagos.
1.4 Significance of the studies
This study is a form of research that would be necessary for students, researcher and policy makers due to fact that this studies focuses on Lagos state and unlike other studies which have placed emphasis on the navigable Inland waterways and ferry business around the world and Lagos state for a case studies. This would be a necessity for student because they are able to understand the terms navigable inland waterways and ferry business, they are also able to gain a better understanding of the relationship between road transportation cost (time and values) especially on the early rush hours and long traffic and the sweet sail of the ferry to its destinations between a short hour.
This studies would also be a necessity for researcher because they are able to use this study for future, it would also help in suggesting methods in carrying out research that would help the researcher better and it would also aid in supporting for their research on similar topic or studies on the ferry business in Lagos and other water related subjects.
Finally, these studies would be a necessity for policy makers both (state and federal) because they are able to derive policies from recommendation that will be suggested at the conclusion of the study. These policies in turn would therefore plays a vital role in the aspect of the developing or improving the service redder by ferry operators either by state or federal and those own by private operators in improving on trip through the many inland waterways system to reduce transportation cost and improve life.
1.5 Research Questions and Methodology
(what are mine trying to achieve and what is new)
• What is the effect of ferry transport on Lagosian during the rush hours
• What is the effect of ferry transport as a means of alternative transport in Lagos for both human and goods
• What is the effect of ferry transport as a better way of decongestion of the road
• What could government do to safe hardship faced by ferry operators (sub-sides, reduction on tax, help in both the maintenance of the ferry and the waterways)
• The monopoly enjoy by government operators should be released to all as a way of promoting healthy competitions among operators, as seen on the road transport union.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of studies.
Due to the broad nature of the navigable waterways in Lagos state, this study therefore focuses solely on ferry business and their operation between CMS Marina to Apapa due to the centrality of these two place and their social-economic impart in the life of the state. CMS Marina being a central/commercial business district while Apapa housing the two busy sea ports in the country, being an industry area where goods are produce on mass in the likes of Four Mils, and Buhams Cements, Apapa being the seat of Dock workers and promoter of factory and where housing just to name but a few. And last a place of resident by the elite of the state before the gentrification of Maroku and the spring of Lekki.
1.7 Organization of the study.
This research work is split into five (5) chapters, with chapter one (1) having to do with introduction to the research work (studies). Chapter two (2) which beings with Literature Review which entails the practical and theoretical empirical review and conceptual review on navigable waterways in Lagos state, ferry business operators (Taxies connection and Sea coach), and other determinants of ferry and jetties. Government intervention on the said sustenance of ferry business both social-economic importance. Chapter three (3) covering Theoretical framework and methodology with reference just to say but a few are research design, samples and procedure, and sampling technique. While Chapter Four pays attentions to discussion of result and comparison of results with previous works and findings, lastly chapter five (5) details the Summary of finding, Conclusion recommendations and further suggestions for future studies. With reference and Appendix.