1.1Background of the Study
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing definitions of drug abuse are used in public health, medical and criminal justice contexts. In some cases criminal or anti-social behaviour occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term personality changes in individuals may occur as well (Ksir, 2002). In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these vary widely depending on the local jurisdiction (Mosby’s Medical,(2002).
Drugs most often associated with this term include: alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids and some substituted amphetamines like methamphetamine and MDMA. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others, or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease.
In 2010 about 5% of people (230 million) used an illicit substance (World Drug Report 2012). Of these 27 million have high-risk drug use otherwise known as recurrent drug use causing harm to their health, psychological problems, or social problems that put them at risk of those dangers (World Drug Report 2012). In 2015 substance use disorders resulted in 307,400 deaths, up from 165,000 deaths in 1990 (GBD 2015 and GBD 2013). Of these, the highest numbers are from alcohol use disorders at 137,500, opioid use disorders at 122,100 deaths, amphetamine use disordersat 12,200 deaths, and cocaine use disorders at 11,100.
Substance abuse during pregnancy is more prevalent than commonly realized, with up to 25% of gravidas using illicit drugs (Glantz JC, 1991). In fact, substance abuse is more common among women of reproductive age than among the general population (Cyr MG, 1990). The average pregnant woman will take four or five drugs during her pregnancy, with 82% of pregnant women taking prescribed substances and 65% using nonprescription substances, including illicit drugs (Glantz JC, 1991). Substance abuse during pregnancy is difficult to detect because the signs and symptoms of this behavior are often subtle, self-reports of substance use may be misleading or infrequently elicited, physicians may fail to routinely screen for use, and substance abusing pregnant women may seek little or no prenatal care. Once detected, substance abuse during pregnancy confronts the physician with issues regarding treatment, management, and maternal and fetal complications. Because pregnant women with substance use problems are more likely than nonpregnant females to seek assistance from a health care provider and to be motivated for substance abuse treatment, pregnancy offers the physician a unique opportunity for both detecting and treating substance abuse. Some would describe pregnancy as a “treatable moment” for mothers who use and abuse substances. In this chapter, we address the epidemiology, basic definitions describing substance use behaviors, biology and etiology, detection and differential diagnosis, prognosis, maternal and fetal complications, use of specific substances, screening, management, and treatment of substance abuse during pregnancy.
Drug abuse is the use of drugs for other purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically Kuria (1996). Social effect may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers and school activities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic works and memory loss, while Kwinsohn (2007) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affect the way people feel, think, see and behave. It is a substance due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. It can enter the body through chewing, eating, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.
According to the world health organization (W.H.O) (1998) drug addiction is persistent, excessive drug use, inconsistent with or on related to acceptable medicines practices.
Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Addiction leads many people, young people prominent amongst them, into downward spiral of hopelessness that in some cases ends fatal. They range from give sniffing street children and teenage ecstasy users to hard core heroin and cocaine addicts (Nacada, 2005). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages destruction of property in schools, scoring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers.
The National government in Nigeria embarked on an aggressive campaign to fight drug and substances abuse. This leads to creation of (NDLEA) to enforce, control and correct abuse stakeholders established, advisory communities on the vice. The campaign, which targeted parents and students, was spearheaded by chiefs and their assistants at the grassroots level according to Kapsoya location chief Muss Kipchumba, drug abuse was becoming a disaster both in rural and urban settings, as barons target school children
Drug abuse had hit hard on the youthful population; the older people were also resorting to substance abuse through excessive intake of alcohol, creating awareness to the public on the danger of drug abuse has become one of the key priorities in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The continuous abuse of these drugs has lead to a situation of drug addiction and the addict developing a bondage to the drug. The effects of drug abuse is detrimental not only to the individual but to the society as a whole. Yet this problem is on the increase especially among youth and teenage pregnant girls, which is a serious threat to our national sanctity.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is analyze the impact of substances abuse among unmarried teenage pregnant girls. Other objective are has followed:
1. To analyze what substance abuse is all about.
2. To Examine whether substance abuse have negative impact on unmarried teenage pregnant girls.
1.4 Research Question
The research question to this study are has followed:
1. What is substance abuse?
2. Did substance abuse have negative impact on unmarried teenage pregnant girls?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: Substance abuse does not have negative impact on unmarried teenage pregnant girls
H1: Substance abuse have negative impact on unmarried teenage pregnant girls
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is centered on examining the substances abuse among unmarried teenage pregnant girls.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In carrying out this research many factors served as constraints:
1. The limitation of the research title as just substance abuse among unmarried teenager pregnant girls.
2. Financial Limitation.
3. Inadequate Time: time factor constitutes the major limitation of this research study. It relates to the fact that the time for research work was short because it was combined with lectures, studies and examination.
4. Negative attitude of respondent: the problem facing the researcher with regards to the respondents relates to the non-cooperation and uncompromising attitude some respondents in giving
1.8 Definition of Terms
Influence: The power to change or affect someone, the power to cause change without directly forcing them to happen
Drug: Any product other than food or water that affect the way people feels, think, see and behave. it is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning.
Drug Abuse: The use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically.
Substance abuse: also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman. A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins. Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology.
Adolescence: (from Latin adolescere, meaning ‘to grow up’) is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).