The quality of human resource is an asset to any organization and as a result training has become an issue that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality of training carried out varies enormously from organization to organization due to factors such as the degree of external change, for instance, new markets or new processes, the adaptability of existing workforce and importantly the extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development. Most organizations meet their needs for training in an impromptu and haphazard way while others set about identifying their training needs, then design training activities in a rational manner and finally assess the results of training. This study, therefore, sought to determine the impact of training and development on employee performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel. The study assessed the training and development process of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel and whether training has improved employee performance. A questionnaire was designed using structured questions to collect primary data from employees of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel. The findings of this research indicated that the various training undergone in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel has impact on employee performance but the management needs to look into the training package. Most of the employees were of the view that training and development were effective tools for both personal and organizational success. Results of analysis of the data collected show that various training conducted in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel has impact on the employees.
The need for employee‟s retention has encouraged the employers to pay attention towards employee development through training in order to keep them motivated.
Training with development as a function of human resource management is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. For the organization, training and development leads to improved profitability while cultivating more positive attitudes toward profit orientation. For the individuals, training and development improve job knowledge while also helping in identifying with the goals of the organization. Training and development can be defined as the planned learning experiences that teach employees how to perform current and future jobs. According to Raja, Furqan and Muhammad (2011: P. 7), training and development have become the most important factor in the business world today, because training increases the efficiency and the effectiveness of both employees and the organization. Training is a systematic restructuring of behaviour, attitude and skills through learning, education, instruction and planned experience. Training is designed to change or improve the behaviour of employees in the work place so as to stimulate efficiency. The cardinal purpose of training is to assist the organization achieves its short and long term objectives by adding value to its human capital. Training and development are not undertaken for the sake of training, but rather are designed to achieve some needs. Edwin (1971: P.194) defined training as “an act that involves growing the knowledge and skill level of an employee in order to perform a specific job”. According to Dubashi (1983: P.1), “Training is a procedure of improving the knowledge attitude and skill of employees to attain organization‟s objectives. It is merely through systematic course of training in which essential professional knowledge is conveyed, skills are developed and attitudes adjusted to the work situation”.
According to Decouza and Robins (1989: P.240) training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. Beach (1980: P.244) states that training is a prepared process in which employee learn knowledge and/or skills for a specific purpose. In the corporate world training is considered a necessity rather than a luxury. Training has a vital role in bridging the gap that exists between knowledge and skills required for the job and employees own caliber. Employees learn their job either with the help of trial and error through observation, in the absence of planned and systematic training. There is no assurance that the employee will improve knowledge and skill through this method, and it also cost additional time and energy. Training is an important activity of human resource department which helps in improving the competency of employees. Training gives a lot of benefits to the employees such as improvement in efficiency and effectiveness, development of self confidence and assists everyone in self management. Noe (2005: P.5) describes development as a future oriented, volunteer activity of an employee to enhance his abilities and skills in long run. Development is the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements. Development is a volunteer of an employee to grow himself over a period of time. Development tends to be an initiative that is intentional and comes from the employee himself. Training and development describes the formal, ongoing efforts that are made within organizations to improve the performance and self-fulfillment of their employees through a variety of educational methods and programs. Training and development are simultaneously used but have different meaning. Training is short run process that is planned and systematic involving employees to obtain the technological and industrial knowledge and skill to perform specific tasks related to their job. The initiative for training comes from the managers to meet the present needs required for the job. Development is a long run process and the initiative comes from the employee voluntarily. Every organization has been established with certain objectives to achieve. These objectives can be achieved by utilizing the resources like men, machines, materials and money. All these resources are important but out of these the manpower is the most important. It plays an important role in performing tasks for accomplishing the goals. Employee‟s performance is the behaviour and attitude of an employee at work. The employees‟ are to perform their jobs according to the set standard determined by the employer. According to Sharif (2002: P.87), the main objective of every organization is to improve its performance but it can never be possible without the efficient performance of employees. Therefore, the performance management system came into effect as a management reform to address and redress concerns, organizations had about performance Various factors like skills, training, motivation, dedication, welfare, management policies, fringe benefits, salary and packages, promotion, communication etc. are responsible to encourage the people to work sincerely and give their best output. Kerney (1992: P.6) described employee‟s performance as measurement of performance of an employee on the basis of the set standards by the organization. Performing up to the standards set by the organization means that an employee meets the organizational expectation and they are considered good performers.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel is a hospitality firm under the Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel was established on 19 May, 2011. Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group has grown to become one of the largest hotel companies in the hospitality industry with a set of brands that deliver world class hospitality and exceptional service. Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group has seven brands (Park Inn, Radisson, Radisson Blu, Radisson Red, Quorvus Collection, Country Inn and Suite. The hotel is located centrally along the waterfront area of Victoria Island, Lagos. It can be described as a modern edifice fused with African culture, styled by a famous Swedish hospitality designer. Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel boosts of a 170 air-conditioned rooms and suites two of which are specially designed for physically challenged individuals. It also has two upscale boardrooms and four meeting rooms. The restaurant serves an eclectic, international cuisine while the outdoor bar/lounge is ideal for drinks and finger foods. The hotel also offers a jetty access from the lagoon. Guests enjoy free access to the hotel fitness area, complete with cardiovascular gym, sauna and a massage room. The mode of operation is based on the standard of the Carlson Rezidor Hotel Group. The resources are maintained by the employees to deliver world class hospitality and exceptional services.
To achieve exceptional service there are several forms of training for employees at the organization ranging from levels to levels in a hierarchy that has been put in place and they include:
• New hire orientation training
• Yes I can training
• Standard operating procedure training
• Responsible business training
New Hire Orientation Training This form of training is done at the early stage of a new employee, it is also known as the induction process. It is done to effectively integrate the new employee into the organization. The first welcome the employee receives at this training is from the CEO Carlson Rezidor Hotel, Group (Wolfgang M. Neumann), different managers from all departments in the hotel will come to give a welcome speech as well as familiarizing the new employee to the culture and values of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel, the Do‟s and Don‟ts of the hotel, code of business ethics and other basic information. The training manager will give a well detailed history of the Journey of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel and also enlighten on the new job, the number, types and classes of rooms various departments and also take the new employee on a tour round the hotel to familiarize them with the hotel. Yes I Can Training
This training is done to properly familiarize employee with the culture of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel. Yes I Can! is the crucial core service philosophy of the Rezidor hotel groups. Yes I can was adopted as both the name and the driving attitude of Rezidor unique service culture back in 1995. Yes I can is so much more than just a slogan. This training enables staff to give guests 100% satisfaction. Guest satisfaction is a key factor to success in the hotel business. Yes I can is also Rezidor special customer satisfaction program reflecting and powering our commitment to always offer alternatives, while seeking the best possible solution in all our interactions with guest, suppliers, colleagues, and community. Standard Operating Procedure Training This training is done in different department daily or weekly, depending on the department. It is carried out to properly groom the employees on the job, and to operate in standard procedure at all times. Responsible Business Training This training enables employees to think planet and think people. Each hotel has a unique responsible business action plan covering areas such as community outreach, environmental improvement, employee well-being, health and safety. Taking responsibility for the environment and local community has been an important part of the Carlson Rezidor Hotels Group broader commitment to sustainable development for many years
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Training and development play a vital role in any organization today. The hotels and tourism sector is one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy. It is also among the top-job creating sectors because its labor intensive nature and the significant multiplier effect on employment in other related sectors. There are various forms of training carried out at Radisson blu hotel, this study however seeks to examine how the various training has helped in developing staffs and also improving their performance on the job. Debra and Ofori (2001: P. 217) explained that despite the increasing effects on training of organizational employees, there is still limited literature on human resource development issues in developing countries. Despite the fact that training and development is well planned and systematic in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel, it still have issues of employees still not performing up to standard operating procedure in the work environment. Some of the employees have not enhanced their skills and abilities to enable them to be effective and efficient on their job duties. Overtime, there have been complaints from the management and some of the clients about some employees‟ performance and attitude towards the job, it has however been an issue to ponder on that despite several training undergone in the organization there are still some employees that the performance has not improved. The motive behind this study is to understand and know the reasons why training and development do not have any impact on some employee‟s performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study seeks to provide answers to the following questions:
i.) does New Hire Orientation training have impact on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel?
ii.) is there any impact of Yes I Can training on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel?
iii.) have employees performance improved due to the Standard Operating Procedure training in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel?
iv.) does Responsible Business training have impact on employee performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel?
1.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES General Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of training and development on employee performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel. Specific objectives
i.) To identify the impact of New Hire Orientation Training on employees‟ performance
ii.) To examine if Yes I Can training have impact on employees performance
iii.) To investigate the effects Standard Operating Procedure Training on employees performance
iv.) To determine the impact of Responsible Business Training on employees performance
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis
1 H0: New Hire Orientation Training does not have any impact on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel H1: New Hire Orientation Training has impact in employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel Hypothesis 2 H0: Yes I Can training does not have any impact on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel H1: Yes I Can training has impact in employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel
Hypothesis 3 H0: Standard Operating Procedure Training does not have any impact on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel H1: Standard Operating Procedure Training has impact in employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel
Hypothesis 4 H0: Responsible Business Training does not have any impact on employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel H1: Responsible Business Training has impact in employees‟ performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel 1.7 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY The development of any organization depends on its employees. For organizational productivity training and development assume great significance. Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of people in work. Training has implications for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. It utilizes a systematic and organized procedure by which learns technical knowledge and skills. It also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization‟s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development. As important as training is to organization, with the effort of Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel in putting in place different training programs no research has been carried out to examine their effects on employee performance in the company. Therefore, this study tries to determine the impact of training and development on employee performance in Radisson Blu Anchorage Hotel.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS Training: It refers to learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of enabling members of an organization acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes needed by a particular job. Development: It is a broad ongoing multi-faceted set of activities, which covers not only activities/skills which improve job performance, but also those activities which bring about growth of the personality, help individuals progress toward maturity and actualization of their potential. Employee performance: It is defined as the outcome or contribution of employees on the job to make them achieve organizational goals. Performance is the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employee performance can also be defined as employees using their skills, ability, and competencies to perform the assigned task required by their subordinate with effectiveness and efficiency
Employee Performance Management: It can be seen as a process for establishing a mutual workforce understanding on what is to be achieved at an organization level. Employee performance management is also a process by which the employees skills, competencies, knowledge are aligned to meet to the strategic objectives and priorities of the organization.