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The project is focused on the efficacy of road traffic crashes on marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti state, Nigeria. The research dwell indepthly into the various means of transporting agricultural produce in the sixteen local governments in the state, the historical perspective relevant to the study. It it equally mentioned that marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti state cannot be much difference from what is obtainable in the whole country.
The impact of road traffic rules on traffic crashes were analyzed for efficient transportation as regards marketing and distribution of farm produce.
The researcher findings about the farming activities by the indigenes shows that most of the indigene had no further interest in farming.
However, most of them have diverted into politics where money is perceived to be gotten faster. State and federal government are now encouraging farmers through agricultural aids subsidy and farm extension programmed.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Road transportation is the dominant of all modes of transportation in Nigeria with over 90% of commuters assigned to it. It is commonly used for movement of people, materials, and agricultural produce from origin of the producer to the destination where such product would be finally consumed.
Road transportation activity involves the conveyance of passengers‟ en-masse or in transportation of animals, farm produce and merchandise and the rendering of mobile small numbers, the services (clinics, libraries, and banks).
Prior to the 1960‟s, there were few vehicles on Nigeria roads and thus there were little concern about safety matters. Equally, road traffic crashes were not prominent as marketing and distribution of agricultural produce were done within small communities where animals and head loading were used to move marketable goods to the market where they were to be purchased by the final consumers.
Problem encountered during business trip were that of slave trade, kidnapping, ritual killing, wide animal attack, journey stress and longer time spent on the road which consequently used to affect their health and equally reduce the expected profit margin.
Since 1970 in Nigeria, the road transport sector has witnessed a boost with the participation of the private sector, local and state government investing into intra-city and inter-state transportation business. Despite enactments and legislation on road traffic by the federal and state government, the establishment of Law Enforcement Agency to control road user‟s behaviour on the road, upon these efforts, road traffic crashes still occur. As private, commercial and public drivers are involved in fatal, major, and minor motor accidents daily.
The emergence of oil boom which increased the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the nation and that of the citizen led to increased number of imported cars, lorries and trucks, that were used in marketing and distribution of kola nuts, from the western Nigeria, groundnut from the northern Nigeria, cocoa, yam, plantains etc were transported into towns and villages where the potential market of the buyer and seller exist.
A significantly improved era on Nigeria citizen importing and buying vehicles became more prominent when monetization policy was introduced by Obasanjo‟s administration. The capitalization policy that increased bank capital base which in return provides loan scheme, gave opportunities to Nigeria to purchase vehicles and motorcycles for both commercial and private uses.
The tragedy of all road crash victims is magnified if we consider that irrespective of breakdown vehicles and accident caused by (speed, neglect, bad driving, distance, alcohol, overtaking vehicles, fatigue, sudden stopping, weather, etc) nearly all crashes are due to negligence. These have caused great losses of agricultural produce on transit, as the product and occasionally the vehicles and men crashes along and die with their consignment.
Road traffic injury is a major public crises that affects the nation, social, economic, infrastructural and human losses. Until now, the scattered nature of road crashes has disguised the magnitude of death and injury caused by road accident and its unquantifiable financial losses to the nation. Road deaths are called accident over which we have no control, accepted as part of life and viewed as the price to be paid for development and mobility. Road crashes are not however inevitable or beyond our control. They are both predictable and preventable.
There are two aspects of unitization of physical loads, these are palletisation and containerization which serve to reduce damage to agricultural and food product, whilst these are in transit to increase the efficiency of the distribution system as a whole.
In other to enhance the marketing and distribution of agricultural produce and to equally ensure improve delivery to their expected destination, there is the need for government to be more realistic by having political will and also have improved and implementable transportation policy in place.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The efficacy of road traffic crashes in marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti State is not much different from distributing same in any part of the country, Nigeria.
Road traffic crashes as affecting agricultural produce has led to a draw back in the spate of social and economic development in Ekiti state, while farmers (producers) of these products suffer a great deal when their goods get lost to crashes.
Prospective buyers who uses these products as their main source of raw material for their factory also get short-changed as such losses equally make them produce below the expected scheduled production level.
Achieving the economy of scale, optimization of all factors of production becomes unattainable, while efforts to achieving profit maximization have to be done by sourcing for their raw materials at varying costs, time, place and with new suppliers.
Can a day pass in Nigeria without a road accident? Can a day pass without losing valuable agricultural produce meant to be sold to prospective buyer by product marketers who lost same to road crashes?
1.3 HYPOTHESIS OF SUDY
H1 = Road traffic crashes has effect on marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti State.
H0 = Road traffic crashes has no effect on marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti State.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aims and objectives of studying the effectiveness of road traffic crashes on marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti State is to determine the extent at which road traffic crashes have impaired into the expected social and economic gains of the targeted market in Ekiti where agricultural products are planted.
Also the road network on which the produce are being transported in the
Sixteen (16) Local Government Areas of Ekiti state shall be examined Vis -a -Vis
their locally grown products to determine the cost benefit to the state.
The mode of transportation available to move these products to their various customers, the economic advantage and cost benefit analysis shall be examined. The marketing behaviour of each product and the efficacy of marketing mix on cocoa, palm oil, yam, plantain, and kola nut should equally be examined.
The impact of road traffic crashes shall be examined holistically while solutions shall be provided to alleviate the suffering encountered by the farmers, consumers (buyers and sellers) of agricultural produce in Ekiti state and Nigeria in general.
1.5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The approach adopted is to view road traffic crashes on marketing and distribution of agricultural produce in Ekiti /state.
The study will not be able to examine marketing and distribution of agricultural produce outside Ekiti State. Human behavioral aspect of causes of road traffic crashes shall not be examined in details as more emphases shall be place on how effective agricultural produce can be marketed to achieve a successful producers and consumers certification in Ekiti State, and how road crashes should be minimized within the context of the study.
The period of research does not fall into the harvest season of some farm produce; this does not give room for full scale study of some of this product. The research would therefore be limited to taking some sample products meant to be sold and produce by marketers who lost same to road crashes?
1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The significant of the study centers on provision of measures to reduce road traffic crashes within the distribution chain of marketing agricultural produce in Ekiti State and equally link same with their market segment within the regions where both suppliers and buyer operates.
The relevant of comparative cost and its advantages to the people in the state shall be exposed, while cognitive steps to improve marketing and distribution of same locally and internationally, so as to improve the living standard of Ekiti citizen and Nigeria in general through local and foreign investment and earnings.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some technical words in the context may not be familiar; hence there is the need to outline the meanings and uses of some of the term.
1. Efficacy – effectiveness the ability to produce desired result
The ability of something, especially a drug or a medical
treatment, to produce the results that are wanted.
2. Road – hard track for vehicles: a long surface route broad enough to
drive on it.
A hard surface built for vehicles to travel on: a
It is a route where goods and people (agricultural produce) are
3. Traffic – Movement of vehicles: the movement of vehicles on a road in
an area; business of transportation: the business of
transporting goods or people.
The vehicles that are on a road at a particular time: heavy/rush hour traffic. Traffic congestion.
4. Crashes – vehicle collision: a collision involving a moving vehicle or air craft.
particular area or among a particular group of people. The act
of giving or delivering something to a number of people.
7. Produce- makes something: to make or create something. Able to produce a meal from the most unpromising ingredients.
Yield something: to grow, bring forth or bear something.
Make naturally: to grow or make something as part of a natural
process. Things that have been made or grown, especially things
connected with farming; farm produce.
8. GDP- Commerce Gross Domestic product. Gross, being the total amount of something before anything is taken away- gross weight, gross income
(before tax, etc are taken away)
9. Slave Trade- dealing in captured people; the business of capturing people,
buying and selling them as enslaved workers. The buying and
selling of people as slaves, especially in the 17th- 19th
10. Rituals- established formal behaviour: an established and prescribed
Pattern of observance, e.g. in a religion.
Performance of formal acts: the observance of action or procedures
in a set, ordered and ceremonial way, unchanging pattern, system
of rites; orthodox ritual. Something that is done regularly and
always in the same way.
11. Comparative – compared with others: considered relative to something known, mentioned or expected.
Involving comparison: based on using comparison of different
things in the investigation of something- comparative
advantages connected with studying things to find out how
similar or different they are. Measured or judged by how
similar or different it is to something else.
12. Administration- management of business : the management of affairs of a
business, organization or institution.
Management staff: the staff of a business, organization or
institution, whose task is to manage its affairs.
13. Loan – money lent: amount of money given to somebody on the condition
that it will be paid back later. Money that an organization such
as bank lends and somebody borrows to take out.
Money lend to a person, i.e. a car loan, student loan, etc.
14. Tragedy – very sad event; an event in life that involves feeling of sorrow or
Disastrous event; a disastrous circumstance or event, e.g. serious
illness, financial ruin, fatality. A very sad event or situation,
especially one that involves death. Tragedy struck the family when
their three year old son was hit by a car and was dead.
15. Negligence – condition of being neglected: a civil wrong tort causing injury or harm to another person or property as a result of doing some
thing or failing to provide a proper and reasonable level of care.
The failure to give somebody or something enough care or
attention. Negligence on the part of the driver.
16. Pallet – platforms for lords: a standardized platform or open-ended
box, usually made wood that allowed mechanical handling of bulk goods during transport and storage. A heavy wooden or metal
base that can be used for moving or storing goods.
Palletisation is the act of loading or making packaging and storage convenient.
17. Container (containerization)- object used in holding something. Object such
as box, jar or bottle that is used to hold something, especially
when it is stored or transported. Containerization involves the
activities of getting goods into the container.
18. Cost-benefit- the relationship between the cost of doing something and the value of the benefit that results from it. Cost benefits analysis.
19. Stress- strain felt by somebody: mental or physical strain caused by anxiety
or over work. It may cause such symptoms as raised blood
pressure or depression. Worry caused by the problem in some
body‟s life. Physical pressure (on something). Pressure put on
something that can damage it or make it loses its shape.