Hotel is a building that provides lodging, meal and other services to the traveling public, provided they are in a position to pay and is in a fit condition to be received. Hence, the hotel provides foods, beverages and lodging to travelers and other paying guest.
The hotel industry is perhaps, one of the oldest commercial endeavors in the world. The first inns have existed since ancient time (e.g. along the Roman road system during the Roman Empire) to serve merchants and other travelers. Medieval European monasteries operated inns to guarantee haven for travelers in dangerous regions. The spread of traveling by stage coach in the 18th century stimulated the development of inns, as did the industrial revolution. The modern hotel was largely the result of railroads, when traveling for pleasure became widely popular, large hotels were often built near railroads stations.
The real growth of the modern hotel industry took place in the United State of America in 1794. The real boom in hotel building came in the early twentieth century. This period also saw the beginning of chain operations under the guidance of E.M. (European Monasteries), who started by involving in investments, big profits and trained professional to manage the business. The management of the hotel system was virtually left in the hand of the front offices. The office in a hotel is the department responsible for sales of hotel rooms, through systematic method of reservation followed by registration and assurance of the rooms to the customers, this was done manually. This was boring and cumbersome, and has remained boring and cumbersome in hotels that still operate manually today.
The development in hotel management continued gradually until recently when computer was invented as an electronic device that accepts input, manipulate data and produces information which is the output as required. Therefore a hotel which operates a computerized system will ensure that the program carries provisions for different tariffs, location and individual guest reference.
1.1 Background of the Study
The hospitality industry, which is a major team player towards the economic growth of Nigeria as a nation and Africa as a continent has distinguished itself as a sector with the widest variety of hotel and tourism services.
There are many things in place in Nigeria now, which should encourage the growth of the hospitality business. These include:
1. The existence of opportunities by the democratic dispensation in the country, which influence the size and growth of both foreign and local business travelers.
2. Global expansion of international trade and also increase services of accommodation rendered by our local hotels.
3. Improvement of our tourist centers and zones.
4. Increase in Nigeria’s annual average growth rate of tourist arrivals.
5. Government favorable policy towards foreign investment.
An important feature of the hotel industry in Nigeria is that until the late seventies there was virtually absence of the well-known names in international hotel industry. From the late seventies however, some of these names began to make an appearance. Names like Sheraton Hotel, Hilton Hotel etc.
Hotels are accessed for their standard of cleanliness and provision for visitors on a scale of one to five (1-5) stars. All aspect of hotel stay is accessed with emphasis on the standard of service, level of comfort and provision of equipment.
The assessment of accommodation gives you a clear indication of cleanliness, ambience, service, hospitality and accommodation standard of the hotel and the reassurance a guest needs to distinguish between the quality of the accommodation and the number of facilities on offer. Basically there are four types of hotels, namely:
1. COMMERCIAL HOTELS: It is also known as conference hotels, and is usually located in cities or suburban areas. They operate all year round.
2. RESORT HOTELS: Resort hotels are usually located primarily in vacation destinations near mountains and seashores. It offers luxurious surroundings with a variety of recreational facilities such as swimming pools, golf courses etc. The business of resort hotels fluctuates with the season.
3. RESIDENTIAL HOTELS: Residential hotel combines the comfort of a permanent living with the convenience of a resort and a resident hotel.
4. CASINO HOTELS: Casino hotels provide lodging in hotel facilities with a casino in the premises. They also provide gambling facilities.
There are different occupations in a hotel; a list of these is discussed in chapter two. One of such occupation is the hotel front desk clerk, whose job is to:
i. Process reservation
ii. Handles guest registration, check in and check out
iii. Monitors arrivals and departures
iv. Handles complaints and
v. Receive and forward mails.
The duty of the hotel front desk clerk depends on the size of the hotel. In small hotels, the desk clerk may do everything, while in large hotels the duties are divided among several types of clerks.
Revenue is generated in a hotel through its point of sale. Hotel points of sale are locations where various services are offered. These points include the front desk, the bar, restaurant and the retail shop.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Sales and services are the fundamental tools in any business organization the profit and loss of any business depends on detailed information on sales and services made to aid in decision making and implementation, if accountability is not checked, then the business is sure to collapse, as a result in an any retail and hospitality business there is a need for a system that gives feedback to the management to aid decision making, this is where computerized hotel management system comes handy. We have too many problems associated with the manual system used which include:
• It takes more time to reserve room. So performance of the current system is slow.
• Difficulty in handling data accurately, security of data, data lost and viewing by unauthorized person.
• Retrieving information like reports and queries is very time consuming and almost impossible practicably if time is considered.
• Searching records of individual guest or customer takes time. (Update, Delete, and Edit), these types of method are not accessible using the manual method.
1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study
This project focuses mainly in computerization of hotel management consequent upon numerous problem faced by manual handling of hotel information. The objective of this study is thus to design and develop an online hotel management system that will:
• To provide an easy way to automate information about the day to day activities of hotel such as record of attendance, computing of bill, tariff plan, as well as online facility for checking availability of rooms, ordering of food and also booking of the room and event hall.
• Facilitate increase in productivity, decrease paperwork, and ability to analyze trouble spot.
• To maintain security and secrecy of the hotel details.
• To provide accurate data when it is required.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study is primarily aimed at increasing efficiency in operation, reducing time and running cost, monitoring and the recording of the activities and total administration in hotel by introducing a web-based Hotel management system
Besides, this study is significance because its conclusions would be useful to:
1. Human Resources Managers in the hotel and restaurants business
2. The Federal, State and Local Government
3. Scholars in the field of hotel and restaurant management
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is building or designing workable easy to operate and reliable software for hotels with the available resources.
However, it involves the total automation of managerial and office system in the use of better management practice. Thus, this includes the full automation of the system as only alternative selected. Hence, the project encompasses all the objectives that would be achieved.
1.6 Definition of Terms
HOTEL – A hotel is a building where traveler can pay for lodging, meals and other service is been reduced to its customers.
DESIGN – Design is an act of working out the form of something by making a sketch outline or plan.
DATABASE – Database is an organized body of related information for use.
IMPLEMENTATION – Implementation is the act of providing a practical means for accomplishing a task.
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) – This is a software that allows users to store modify or extract information from a database. It manages the database on a computer by updating of data in a computer system. It provides access to the database.
DATA – Data is a term to disable facts or it is a collection of facts, numbers, letters and symbols. Data can also be seen as anything in a form suitable for use with a computer.
DATABASE SYSTEM – This is a system to achieve an organized, store a large number of dynamical associated data, facilitate for multi-user accessing to computer hardware, software and data, that it is a computer system with database technology.
RECORD – This is a collection of related fields of information, it consist of data relating to a field within a table that are relevant to a specific entity.
FILE – A file is a collection of data of any form which is stored beyond the time of execution of single job. It can also be seen or define as a collection of record with similar characteristics.
APPLICATION – Application is a program that tells the computer how to accept instruction from the user and how to produce information in response to those instructions.
APPLICATION DEVEPOLMENT – This is the process of using a programming language or development to build software application.
PROGRAM – A program is a sequence of instruction given to computer to solve a particular problem. A program must have a characteristic of being precise, correct clear and terminating.
AUTOMATION – This is a design of an object to work in an effortless manner with high speed without human intervention. It can also be defined as an act of practice of using machine that need little or no human control or effort, especially in some work places.
OUTPUT – This is the result generated after the processing of imported data. An output is the real information.
INPUT – This is an operation or program of transferring data to or from a computer system.