The Impact of Manpower Training and Development on Job Performance in the Nigerian Public Service (A Case Study of National Directorate of Employment, Enugu)
Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
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Manpower training has become the subject of increasing study and discussion by management and behavioural experts during the past decades. The purpose of this is that the society has come to realise that the success of any organization depends to a large extent on the ability of the employees to perform their functions effectively and efficiently. Such effectiveness and efficiency largely depends on manpower training. This study has adopted both primary and secondary sources of data. Reference was made to text books, journals, lecture notes that have relevance to this study. Personal observation, personal interview and the use of questionnaires formed the bases of the primary sources of data. The data collected from primary and secondary sources were organized by the use of tables. Some relevant literatures were also reviewed in chapter two. It was considered necessary to identify some types of training, its importance, and some of the problems of staff training and development were also discussed. The researcher adopted the percentage method in its data analysis and these were shown in chapter three. Chapter four of this research was so unique because it contains the data presentation and analysis. The stated hypotheses for this study were also tested. Finally, chapter five records the research findings, summary, recommendations and conclusion which some of the findings includes:- A positive effect of training on workers performance; adequate manpower planning, motivation after undergoing training, improvement in the existing relationship among workers. While some of the recommendations includes:- Management should endeavour to specify the objectives of every training. Formal training facilities should be extended to all staff of the organization. There should be guiding policies which must be strictly followed without playing a double standard etc.
1.1 BACKGROUND AND NEED FOR THE STUDY
The mission of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) has been to concentrate its efforts on the re-activation of public works, promotion of direct labour, promotion of self-employment, organization of artisans into co-operatives and encouragement of a culture of maintenance and repairs through out the nation. This set of objective has remained the guiding principle of which the organizations operation is based.
One of the objectives in the attainment of this goal has been the recruitment of qualified personnel in the organization.
The second is the training of workers to enable them acquires required knowledge and skills that will enable them maintain and operate the organization’s available equipment.
Thirdly, is the optimal utilization of available manpower to ensure that their objectives are met to the changing trends in the nation’s employment pattern.
The National Directorate of Employment has been passing through some thickened problems especially in the area of manpower. The Director for personnel, Mr. Abu-Baba Ari commenting on the issue, noted that the problem started with the organization. The problem of manpower training in the organization has been traced to the period when National Directorate of Employment was established up till date. Starting from that period staff were not given adequate training, instead the Department merely provided refresher courses and this led to poor performance of workers. Since the inception of National Directorate of Employment in 1986, it has been battling with ways of remedying those manpower inadequacies in the organization, but has not achieved any fruitful result. The problems have enforced the need to carry out this research.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The National Directorate of Employment has been facing a lot of problems in manpower training.
One of the problems inherent in manpower training in National Directorate of Employment has been finance. There has been shortage of fund to meet the acquisition of new technological implements in the organization.
Low performance of workers has been another problem confronting the organization. The already trained employees have been poorly supervised.
According to Koontz, O; Donnell and Weihrich (1955:577), another problem being faced by most organization was selecting few for manpower training. There was a mistaken notion that manpower training requires a few people with high potential in the training programme, while ignoring the rest of the employees. This problem was also applicable to National Directorate of Employment.
Post training evaluation was another problem facing National Directorate of Employment. Posting a staff to an area he was not trained for was another problem confronting manpower training in the organization.
According to Zahradeen (1981:185), lack of planning ahead was another problem confronting organizations in Nigeria and of course National Directorate of Employment was not left out. Absence of correct data had made planning and plan implementation rather difficult in organizations.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are to examine the extent training can help to improve productivity and the extent it can help in motivation.
Finally to examine the various training methods and benefits derived from training, both on the part of individual and the organization.
1.4 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE STUDY
The Great-man theory of Harren and Davis is used in this study for this purpose, the whole of Greatman’s personal qualities theory would be applied.
According to Harren and Davis (1969:37) the Greatman theory for personal qualities include intelligence, social maturity, inner motivation and human relations oriented attitude, supervisory ability and self assurance. They are of the view that these qualities can be acquired and developed through manpower training.
The Greatman theory for personal qualities has contributed greatly in manpower development. Training has exposed so many workers to efficiency consciousness in their dealings with members of the public. Added to this, social maturity has helped in molding the behavior and attitude of individuals especially the manager in the organization which invariably leads to high productivity. More so, training has equipped leaders on how best they could motivate and encourage subordinates in effectively performing their duties to avoid waste.
Every organization has an image maker who relates with the public. He must be trained to be able to do this. Also human relations development has been the priority in many organizations and it is important to note here that in every human relation there is an exchange. There is an exchange relationship between employers and employees in relation to manpower training. It is a give and take relationship. The management is to train the workers to enable them acquire the needed knowledge and skill to carry out their required duties. The workers on the other hand received the training and in return give the best for the organization. That is to say, the management owns their employee the duty of training and retraining for them to acquire the needed knowledge and skill to carry out their required duties.
The workers on the other hand received the training and in return give the best for the organization. That is to say, the management owns their employees the duty of training and retraining for them to acquire needed new skills and perfect the old ones, invariably, this will motivate the employees to reciprocate through improved performance which brings about increase in labour productivity.
Supervisory ability and self assurance are developed through the manpower training for supervisors as this would help them to develop their efficiency in supervision. The emphasis on self-assurance means by implication that training helps the individual to have adequate knowledge of the job he is performing, so that whatever he does would be guaranteed.
Therefore, operationalizing great-man’s theory of personal qualities in this study means that every staff in National Directorate of Employment need to be self-assuranced, self-matured intelligent, motivated among others and these qualities could be acquired by no other means according to Harren and Davis but through training.
Finally, the achievement of increase in job performance fully depends on the extent of Great-man’s personal qualities in organization such as National Directorate of Employment.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These research questions are developed by the researcher for the purpose of getting information for this study.
1) How often does your organization send workers to training?
2) How does training affect productivity in your organization?
3) How does management view the training of workers in your organization?
4) To what extent does training assist in the development of worker’s abilities, skills and potentials in the performance of their duty?
5) To what extent do workers benefit after undergoing training in respect of salary and other benefits in your organization?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this study is to examine manpower training in National Directorate of Employment.
The research study consists of the management and other staff of the organization.
The sampling will cover the senior and junior staff of the organization and cluster random sampling technique would be used.
The feasible general areas the study will cover will be the National Directorate of Employment, Enugu.
The researcher will make use of questionnaire to collect information for the study. The questionnaire would be structured in a way that it will give room for close open ended answers.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Despite the interest and effort put in this research, some problems were encountered in the course of the study.
First in running around in search of materials and information needed for the research work, much money was involved, as there has been problem of none payment of staff salary during the period.
Secondly, while carrying out this study, the researcher was subjected to a stipulated time limit within which the study is supposed to end. The time which was given to the researcher and other pressing academic work were serious limitations on the research work. A study of this type requires more time than that which was given for full research work.
The researcher found it difficult to get the co-operation needed from the respondents in the organization at first. They complained of having no time to attend to the researcher because of their official commitments.
Finally, distance also affected the frequency of the researcher’s visit to the location of the study as the researcher has not, the adequate fund to shuttle to and fro.
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In National Directorate of Employment today, job performance is nothing to write home about. This is because manpower training has been regarded by the organization as a waste of fund and unnecessary aspect of workforce. Therefore this research work is being carried out to let the National Directorate of Employment management, Enugu know the problem that has been facing them and find lasting solutions to them.
Secondly, this study would give a basis for further researchers to validate findings of the integrated studies and to the existing knowledge of management science.
Thirdly, this study would help National Directorate of Employment, Enugu and other organizations in the country to eliminate waste of time, money and material through training that is not based on emerging need of the organization.
Finally, this study would expose training and educational institutions, why it is of necessity to design programmes that would provide organizations and employees on what they need.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS
Manpower is defined in international Encyclopedia of social science as that portion of the population which is economically active and also generally includes the potential or maximum available working force which might come into being in accordance with economic, social or political consideration”.
In the context of this study, manpower means the productivity employment capacity of human being, that is, the essential aspect of human being in all their productive activities whether paid or unpaid employment.
According to the Ihejiamaizu (1995:35) is a preparatory discipline for employees in an organization to boast efficiency in order to increase production. It is also refers to what employees are exposed to when undergoing a course of instruction direction and possible a practice in an individual skills in a particular trade”.
In this thesis training means the development of person’s knowledge, skills and attitude for vocational purpose.
Development is defined by Flippo (1961:186) as both training to increase skill in performing a specific job and education to increase general knowledge and
Understanding of the total environment”. In this study, development means the progress made in the process of learning new skills.
Herbert, Hicks and Gullet, (1976:53) defined motivation “as discovering the stimuli for particular individuals that will lead to desired behaviour in attainment of organizational goals and objectives”.
In this study, motivation is that which causes a person to act or do something in certain way. Human motives are the needs, want devices or impulses within the individual person and directed towards the accomplishment of specific goals in the organization.
Productivity operationally, is the number of unit of works accomplished during a given time or interval. It is the balance between all factors of production that will give the greatest output for other smallest effort.
In this research, productivity involves the conduct of individuals and the amount of energy expended by the individual in an activity.
• Organizational Workers
A worker in ordering terms refers to a person employed to do physical or mental work in order to earn his means of livelihood or wages”.
In this research work, organizational workers include all persons within the organization. Utilizing free resources and arranging for the organization to acquire other necessary resources.
Organization is defined by Gritin, (1984:37) as a combination of people or individual efforts working together in pursuit of certain common purposes called organizational goal.
In this study, organization implies the collection of people acting with a given structure in realization of specific goals within the confirm of specific rules and regulations governing the conduct of members.
According to Akpala, (1990:3), management is the process of combining and utilizing an organizations inputs (men, material, money and machine) by planning, organizing, directing and controlling for the purpose of producing outputs (goods, services etc) desired by consumers, so that the organizational objectives are accomplished.
In this study, management is the process of combing all the scarce resources through the process of planning, organizing, directing etc in order to achieve organizational goals. It is concern with result, efficiency to achieve the co-operative aim of the organization, getting things done by and through others, consistency etc.
• Overview of the Study
Chapter one was the introduction of the study which comprised, background and need of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, limitations of the study, significance of the study, definition of the terms and acronyms.
Chapter two treated the literature review. This generally consists of contributions from secondary sources in the area of manpower training.
Chapter three, treated, research method and design, sources of data, comprising primary and secondary data location of study, method of data collection, the description of population, selection of subjects to be studied, sample size and sample technique, the discussion of the instruments for measuring variables, validity test and the reliability test, Questionnaire item involving National Directorate of Employment management and staff were used.
Chapter four dealt with analysis of data gathered. It also comprises data presentation, and analysis.
Chapter five concluded with the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.