1.1 Background to the Study
The Nigerian nation has suffered security challenges of various dimensions since its independence in 1960 (Phenson, 2014:5). These include poverty, proliferation and availability of small arms and light weapons, weak intelligence, weak database democratic culture and insecurity dilemma (Akpan, 2012:34 – 64). Hence, the nation has not achieved the desired peace and perfect security needed for development, especially in the Niger-Delta Region. Due to this, peace, security and stability have eluded the country.However, other areas that are posing threats to the Nigerian nation include; communal clashes, lack of democratic culture, financial crimes, poverty, ethnicity, religious extremism and so forth. In addition, there are political and socio-economic security-related problems such as tribalism, false image of who we are, leadership, Nigerian-style, lack of patriotism, social injustice and the culture of mediocrity, indiscipline, corruption and ethnicity (Achebe, 1983: 45), and most importantly, the oil- related security challenges which have bedeviled the Niger-Delta region.
The security situation in the Niger Delta region has always been oil- related hazards and environmental pollutions arising from operations of MNCsin the region. Since 1990, the security situation has continued to deteriorate due to reprisal-arm attacks from well-organized militant youths of the region who resorted to arms struggle in self-defense to protests against the political marginalization, neglect, poverty in the midst of plenty and lack of infrastructural development. There are protests against unequal sharing of crude oil resources and lopsided employment quota in the oil companies, unemployment ratios, ever-increasing environmental pollutions and activities of occupation military forces sent to the Niger-Delta region by the federal government of Nigeria to quell these genuine agitations.
The use of military forces to suppress genuine demands and agitations from the indigenous oil-bearing communities have proved counter-productive as it spurred the educated, but unemployed youths of the region to take up arms in self-defense against the wanton killings and violations of human and environmental rights of the indigenes of the region.The long neglect and irony of abject poverty in the midst of oil wealth being faced in these oil producing communities, high unemployment rates, lack of infrastructural development and environmental pollutions caused by operations of oil companies in the region have forced these aggrieved youths into violent protests.The deliberate delays by oil companies to pay compensation for continued environmental damages in the region, prolonged delays before remediating hydrocarbon polluted oil sites and non-compensation of continued gas flaring have continued to destroy people’s aquatic means of livelihood over the years.
There are injustices in the system as a result of the manipulated Nigerian Federalism. This perceived injustice made people of the region to agitate for self determination, favourable revenue formula, preferably resource control,restructuring of Nigerian federalism and devolution of power to South-South of Nigeria Ekpo, (2001).
Supporting this view, Wilson (2006) noted that;“over the years, the pendulum of oil derivation has swung from 100% to 50% to 30% to 13%. In the first republic, the regions owned their resources and pay tax to the federal government an act which was inconsonant with the practice of true federalism. The tax may have been 50% of the revenue derived but there was that freedom to exercise some measures of control over their natural and other resources. Today, many have made demands for what has been called true federalism. Others have cynically noted that there is nothing like true federalism. To my mind, what is in practice in the name of federalism is internal colonialism”.
However, the issue of fiscal administration is another major problem to the Niger-Delta region. The struggles for resource control are crucial to the Nigerian federation as it is also the basis for ending the protracted conflicts/political violence in the region. The fiscal centralization in Nigeria has alienated the oil producing minorities in the Niger-Delta region from wealth emanating from oil exploitation that has degraded the environment and rendered the indigenes poor.
As posits by Wiwa (1994), since oil began in Ogoni land in 1958, earnings for SPDC and the Nigerian state have increased tremendously. The host communities have not benefited, but instead, have been left with degraded land, decimated wild life, polluted rivers and creeks with fish no longer thrived and atmosphere pumped full of air pollutants/gas which keeps on burning for decades.
These vexatious pictures of poverty amidst oil-wealth have always driven these impoverished host oil communities into violent protests and continued agitations. The subsequent youth restiveness further worsens the security problem in the region, therebymaking security management problematic.
In recent times, there have been re-occurrences of armed robberies, oil/gas pipeline vandalism and sabotage, acts of insurgency, terrorism, insurrection and armed rebellions in the region. Also, the region has continued to witness sporadic communal and tribal unrests, militancy, cultism, kidnappings and hostage-takings of foreign oil company workers and innocent citizens by the aggrieved and long-neglected youths of the Niger-Delta region and elsewhere in the country, who saw kidnappings and politically-motivated crimes as a quicker means of economic survival. The proliferation of fire arms by cult groups in the institutions of higher learning;including secondary schoolsacross the country also poses serious security concerns to the country.
It is in the light of the foregoing that this work is undertaken with a view to examining whether or not the Nigerian government has been effectively harnessing and co-coordinating human, material and technical resources for securing and maintaining the protection of lives and property of its citizens.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Fulani herdsmen attack and farmers clashes has brought a lot of problems to our society including Nigeria also book haram and Niger delta militancy has brought unrest security challenge. These include death, tears, destruction and so on. The way it is it seems our government has not acted significantly to put this security challenges to an end. Ese Otite of Nigerian National News asked “is the government waiting for all her citizens to fizzle out, before they can take a decisive step to curb the activities of this extremist group? What are the security agencies doing? Or do we say maybe those in power have not been affected either because they and their families move about with convoys filled with security personnel?”
Nigeria is going down a path never seen in her history. It’s a pretty dangerous path, one that the whole world is watching. People are afraid of their safety. At a time, we taught our problem was corruption and power failure, but now security has taken over. With what is happening the President should come out strong and call the shots, he has to face the security challenges. It is very clear that not enough is being done to address their security menaces of the Niger delta militancy. All they now do is to promote their own religion instead of protecting Nigeria. This government should as a matter of national urgency overhaul our security system. Nigeria occupies an enviable position in the world with abundant natural and human resources. The government should look deeper in order to find a lasting solution to this carnage. Moreover, the truth must be told, we lack the sophisticated weapons to suppress the crisis in the custody of the extremists/criminals. Also, there is inadequate manpower; the number of the extremists/criminals is insignificant.
1.3 Aims and objectives of study
The main aim and objective of this study is to ascertain the level of government Strategies and the management of security challenges in Nigeria: a case study of Niger delta militancy. While the specific objectives were:
1. To examine the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
2. To examine the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
3. To examine the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered:
1. What is the effect of adoption of close circuit television on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
2. What is the effect of community security watch on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
3. What is the effect of surveillance on the management of security challenges in Nigeria?
The research hypotheses to be tested:
Ho: Community security watch and adoption of close circuit television will not have significance effect on the management of security challenges in Nigeria.
H1: Community security watch and adoption of close circuit television will not have significance effect on the management of security challenges in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study was delimited to government Strategies and the management of security challenges in Nigeria a case study of Niger delta militancy.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to be of immense help to the government, security personnel and Nigerian Security Council as well as policy makers. It may also be of help to improve upon security management in our society in Nigeria. The result of this study is expected to provide data for planning, as well as provide additional stock of security data for other researchers, who might find it relevant and useful in their enquiries.
The study will fill the gap of knowledge of what has not been done by the past researchers who conducted almost similar study with regard to security management. The researcher will offer solutions to some practical or theoretical problems. This work also will be of benefit to the tertiary institution students, Ministry of Education and teachers, Parents and Guardians.
1.8 Definition of concepts
Security: is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm (or other unwanted coercive change) caused by others. Beneficiaries (technically referents) of security may be of persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change by its environment.
SecurityStrategy: A SecurityStrategy is a document prepared periodically which outlines the major security concerns of a country or organisation and outlines plans to deal with them