Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
The title of this research is to analyze ICT use in the broadcast media a study of Imo state based radio and television stations. The main objective of this study is to study the effect of ICT use on news processing in imo state based radio and television stations. Specifically the objectives of this study is to find out the effect of ICT on news processing, determine the relevance of ICT in news processing, find out the constraints in the use of ICT in news processing and find out the type of ICT used in news processing. In this research two hypothesis was chosen to be tested. The research hypothesis for this study are Ho1: The use of ICT do not have positive effect on broadcasting media in imo state, Hi1: The use of ICT have positive effect on broadcasting media in imo state, Ho2: The use of ICT do not have any relevance in news processing and Hi2: The use of ICT have relevance in news processing.This study will be beneficial in the following ways: The findings will help to reposition the thought pattern and help media professionals to get acquainted with the new technologies to help produce quality programmes. The findings of this research will add to the existing literatures and act as a handy material for students who might have interest in researching further on the topic. The study shows the extent to which broadcast media have incorporated the use of modern technologies in their operations. The findings from this research ascertained how favourable or unfavourable these new technologies are to the broadcast media.The general concern of this study is to evaluate the application or use of ICTs in broadcasting media. However, as a result of insufficient time, money and materials and in order to remain realistic and avoid ambiguity, the researcher decided to limit the scope to imo state base radio and television stations. It is however believed that the findings and recommendations of the work would be beneficial to both those within and outside the scope of the study.With the use of simple random sampling techniques from the population of 112 staff of imo state based radio and television stations, listener and viewer of the stations, the researcher selected 88 staff of imo state based radio and television stations, listener and viewer of the stations.
1.1Background of the Study The news processing in the media particularly the broadcast media seem to be witnessing a revolution that is changing the process of news collection, editing and dissemination. This change has been brought about by the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Meanwhile the last two decades or so witnessed tremendous advancement in the spread of the knowledge of information and communication technology. Virtually every segment of society, including the press, has been impacted by these developments. Even though the knowledge spread slowly to, or was latently embraced in Nigeria, its effects have been enormous. Not only has it quickened information dissemination, it has also revolutionized the conduct, method and quality of media practices generally (Nuhu Diraso Gapsiso and Joseph Wilson, 2014). The computerization of editorial duties has caused a real upheaval in working habits but has also marked a genuine development in presswork. Computers fascinate some people and frighten others, and have fostered bitter resistance from print union representatives. The possibility for journalists everywhere to type their own articles, type copy and enter it directly into a computer system has completely transformed the profession. Keyboard operators previously responsible for inputting copy, and who themselves had replaced traditional typesetters, have already gone in some countries and will disappear in the medium-term elsewhere. Thus the process of writing stories appears to have change with the advent of ICT. First, a reporter writes a news story on the word processing system. The article is then stored in the central data file. An editor “calls up” the story. It is edited, polished and readied for print. Finally, the computer is directed to typeset the story in its expected form. In this way, a story that could have been typed three times (reporter’s original, edited version, typeset version), is only typed once. To underscore the relevance of ICT in newsrooms, Mwila a Zambian web developer said that once fully adopted and adapted, the ICT will transform the newsrooms into cabled and networked centres with all journalists discharging stories onto a network, editors picking them before sending them to the page designers or casters in the case of electronic media. Basically, the newsrooms will utilize all the available ICT to easily coordinate material for publication or broadcasting and also to communicate among staff (Nuhu Diraso Gapsiso and Joseph Wilson, 2014). He adds that with accurate deployment of ICT, newsrooms will be able to efficiently coordinate material, communicate easily with all members of the staff and easily send materials for publication or broadcasting. For instance, instead of individuals getting copy from one desk to another, the ICT will enable copy and articles to flow on a local area network (LAN), drastically reducing the time lag in passing materials. Our century has seen the telephone, film, radio, television become both objects of mass consumption and essential tools for the conduct of everyday life. We are now confronted by the spectre of a further intensification of mediated culture, through the global growth of the Internet and the promise (some might say the threat) of an interactive world in which nothing and no one cannot be accessed, instantly. Much of contemporary debate draws on a sense of the speed of these various changes and developments, but mistakes the speed of technological change, or indeed of commodity change, for the speed of social and cultural change. There is a constant tension between the technological, the commercial and the social, a tension that must be addressed if we are to recognize media as indeed a process of mediation. To a large extent, it is believed that Information is the primary input as well as the final output of a broadcast industry. It collects raw information and converts it into categorized, defined and useful pieces of information. Therefore, it appears the changes brought in the realm of information through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution are bound to affect the broadcast industry more than any other industry. The adoption and absorption of Information and Communication Technology are being carried out in broadcast industry by bringing efficiencies in all the functional wings including production, editorial and marketing so as to gain competitive advantage. Technology development and absorption in broadcast industry has improved the packaging of news. The profuse use of online content and facilities has led to high productivity and efficiency at a reduce cost. The wide range of recording of news with high sophistication, editing database, photo imaging, and mixing software provided cutting-edge facilities to broadcast industry. The use of telefax, websites, online database, and web based information sites, and online readers and newsmakers, made the cumbersome job of information collection and reporting easier than ever before. It would not be wrong to postulate that whole nature of editorial job has changed under the influence of IT. Information and communication technologies (ICT) are an umbrella term that covers all technical means for processing and communicating information. The term has gained popularity partially due to the convergence of information technology (IT) and telecom technology. ICT defines a broad range of technologies, including methods for communication (communication protocols, transmission techniques, communications equipment, media communication), as well as techniques for storing and processing information (computing, data storage, etc.) Also, Information and communication technologies (ICT) are often associated with high-tech devices, such as computers and software, but ICT also encompasses more “conventional” technologies such as radio, television and telephone technology. The term, information and communication technology (ICT) refers to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. This broad definition of ICT includes such technologies as: radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such as videoconferencing and electronic mail. (Wikepedia, 2009). The adoption of computer technology in broadcast industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing. Access to information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the impact of increasing adoption convergence on media has created an enabling environment to ensuring people’s access to information through the adoption of this technology. 1.2 Statement of the Study The challenge facing reporters and editors appears to be the effect of ICT on news processing. It could be arguedthat the employment of computer technology in the newsroom and in news processing will increase cost, asmoney would have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software creating or building websites, include remunerations for personnel that would man and constantly maintain them. However, going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of computertechnology in news processing, in order to achieve better efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of newsprocessing, Nuhu and Joseph (2014) points out that ICT facilitates the creation, storage, management and dissemination ofinformation by electronic means. ICT facilitates communication and processing ofinformation, saves time and reduce cost. However, when information technology is discussed, it puts people outof jobs. The reverse is often the case. This technology takes over mechanical assignment and frees individuals for more intellectual productive work similarly, if this technology will achieve its overall objective, there is needfor faster and more accurate means of solving manual operations of data processing and better storage devicesfor information and data as provided by the computer system, the complexities of modern technology haveproduced great mathematical, scientific, and engineering problem and hence, enhanced news processing. The Nigerian broadcast and print media like other facet of life and human endeavour in the country seem to haveembraced information and communication technology to some extent. The information era has seem to have taken the world by storm with the way it is affecting the society. Supported in its entirety by the communication technology, information spread vastly become faster and cheaper. The media through which information is disseminated also gets varied in types, further revolutionizing theinformation era. In the past, there is a significant time lag separating the point when an event took place and thetime when the news may be publicly available. The advancement of radio and television allows for the real time coverage of an event. In its time, the existence of radio broadcasting audio-based news was considered revolutionary in information dissemination. The birth of television upgrades the information era to the level where visualization is part of the necessities. An now the convergence of computer and media technologies have compelled media organization to adopt ICT in their daily operations. Considering enormous discuss on digitization of the mass media in Nigeria by experts and scholars ,eg. Ichu & Uche,(2012) Olaya (2013),ellephree (2011), Garba, (2013) and the most recent declaration by the Borno State Government to of itswillingness to ensure the full digitization of its media organization, the Borno Radio and Television Services(BRTV), before the 2015 deadline which goes to show that the Northeastern State of Borno is not left out in ICTadoption in its media outfits (Ndahi, 2013). It therefore makes it imperative to study the effect these technologies in the various aspect of its media operation. This study focuses on the effect of ICT use in broadcasting media in imo state radio and television stations for news processing. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The main objective of this study is to study the effect of ICT use on news processing in imo state based radio and television stations. Specifically theobjectives of this study is to: i find out the effect of ICT on news processing. i determine the relevance of ICT in news processing. ii find out the constraints in the use of ICT in news processing iii find out the type of ICT used in news processing 1.4 Research Questions The research questions for this study are: i what is the effect of ICT on news processing? ii what is the relevance of ICT in of news processing? iii what are the constraints in the use of ICT in news processing? iv what are the types of ICT used in news processing. 1.5 Research Hypothesis The research hypothesis for this study is” Ho1: The use of ICT do not have positive effect on broadcasting media in imo state. Hi1: The use of ICT have positive effect on broadcasting media in imo state. Ho2: The use of ICT do not have any relevance in news processing. Hi2: The use of ICT have relevance in news processing. 1.6 Significance of the Study This study will be beneficial in the following ways: The findings will help to reposition the thought pattern and help media professionals to get acquainted with the new technologies to help produce quality programmes. The findings of this research will add to the existing literatures and act as a handy material for students who might have interest in researching further on the topic. The study shows the extent to which broadcast media have incorporated the use of modern technologies in their operations. The findings from this research ascertained how favourable or unfavourable these new technologies are to the broadcast media. 1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study The general concern of this study is to evaluate the application or use of ICTs in broadcasting media. However, as a result of insufficient time, money and materials and in order to remain realistic and avoid ambiguity, the researcher decided to limit the scope to imo state base radio and television stations. It is however believed that the findings and recommendations of the work would be beneficial to both those within and outside the scope of the study. 1.8 Assumptions This research work is meant to examine the ICT use in the broadcasting media a study of Imo state radio and television stations. To check how relevance is ICT in broadcasting media and also check whether ICT use have positive or negative on new processing in broadcasting media. 1.9 Limitation of the Study TheresearchworkislimitedtoICT use in broadcasting media study of imo state radio and television stations.Themainconstraintoftheresearchisdividedintothefollowing parts. a) Timeconstraints-duetotheshorttimegivenforthestudy,the researchercouldnotgetalltherequiredinformationneededforthe study. b) Finance-asaresultofmoneyconstrainttheresearcherhadnot enoughmoneytocarryoutthestudybeyondthelevel.The researchercouldnotvisitplaceswherenecessaryinformation relevantto thestudycouldbeobtained. c) Attitudeofrespondents–someoftherespondentswereunwillingto cooperatewiththeresearcherbecausetheyfelt,theyhavenothing tobenefitfromthestudybothfinanciallyandotherwiseto theresearcher. 1.10 Conceptual and Operational Definition of the Study ICT: “ICTs” stands for Information and Communication Technologies. ICT are those electronic gadgets, equipment or technologies for creating, acquiring, storing, processing, communicating and using information. This study is concerned with those used in the media – print and electronic. Application: The word application literally means the practical use of something, especially a discovery or innovation, theory, etc, or an act of putting something on to something else. In this work, it simply means the practical use of ICTs in the broadcasting media. Media Technologies: This refers to any special device or medium that helps in the procession, distribution, storage, display and reception of information. Broadcast: This is the business of sending out radio and television signals over a distance, to a large heterogeneous audience by means of airwaves. Broadcast Media: This is that electronic media or channel that uses the airwaves which enables signals and information to be transmitted to a large and diverse audience. Digital: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th ed.). Digital means using a system of receiving and sending information as a series of the numbers, numbers one to zero, showing that an electronic signal is there or is not there. Internet: According to the wikipedia. org the internet also known as the “Net” or the “Web” can be easily understood as a “network of networks”. Specifically, it is the worldwide publicly accessible network of international computer networks that transmits data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol (IP). Radio broadcasting: is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio. Television broadcasting: form of broadcasting in which a television signal is transmitted by radio waves from a terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to TV receivers having an antenna.