The role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board
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The title of this study is the role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board. The main objective of this study is to analyze the role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board. The specific of the study are to examine how mass media promote tourism, to find out how mass media advertising stimulate demand in tourism, to find out the role mass media advertising plays in the development of tourism, to appraise whether mass media advertising has really contributed favourably to tourism development in Imo State, determine the extent mass media advertising have gone in increase of tourism development in Imo State, to find out how mass media advertising contribute to the dissemination of product or service to target markets, to appraise the contribution of mass media advertising to profitability in tourism development, to make recommendations as to how to make mass media advertising more effective and efficient in tourism development.The following hypothetical statement are designed to help the researcher in his analysis. They are represented both in null and alternative hypothesis. Ho is used for null hypothesis while H1 for alternative hypothesis.H0: Mass media advertising does not favour tourism development, H1: Mass media advertising affect tourism development favorably, H0: The use of mass media advertising has not been of help to Imo state tourism board, owerri and H1: The use of advertising has been of help to Imo state tourism board, owerri. This study is very timely because many company executives are still not sure of how much attention and money that will be accrued to advertising using the mass media. Marketing managers stand to benefit tremendously by this study because the study will make clearer the role of advertising in business, which cannot be replaced by any other promotion. With the use of simple random sampling techniques from the population of 112 staff of Imo state tourism board and visitor of the tourist center, the researcher selected 88 staff of Imo state tourism board and visitor of the tourist center.
1.1Background of the Study Tourism is a business which improves and serves the needs of people travelling and staying outside their home communities for either business or pleasure. It is an enjoyable way to spend free time and use of vacations, holidays, weekends, and time after retirement. In fact, it contributes to the enrichment level of educating people, both tourists and host populations through contact with new cultures and civilizations. In the wake of globalization and economic restructuring, many countries of the world are struggling to redefine and rebuild their economies to reduce poverty and encourage economic development. In this direction, governments and International Aid Agencies (IAA) have recognized the significance of tourism development for creating economic opportunities and general quality of life of the people especially at the grassroots levels. By the mid-year of 2015, Imo State was one of the States in Nigeria highly indebted to civil servants and contractors in term of unpaid salaries and contract bills. This is as a result of drastic fall in Federal monthly monetary allocations and low Internally Generated Revenue (IGR). Imo State is at this mess despite the presence of many resources such as tourist attractions that the State can harness to enhance her income to avoid heavily relying on monetary allocation from the Federal Government. As revealed in literature and research findings that were reviewed in this study, many countries of the world such as Kenya, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Australia, United States of America, Kuwait, France, United Arab Emirates, Aruba, and South Korea have used tourism to develop their economy, communities and improve the conditions of their citizens. Since nature has endowed most communities of Imo State with resources of tourism potentialities, it is expected that if members of the communities in collaboration with Imo State Government are educated and conscientised on the action towards tourist attractions management, the community members (especially the adults) and government will not only understand the value chain of tourism, but will be empowered on identification and effective management of tourist attractions towards socio-economic development of the citizens and Imo State as a whole. The main principle of conscientisation as developed by Paulo Freire was to arouse the consciousness of the grassroots people on the noticed and unnoticed challenges confronting them and to provoke them into action towards harnessing their potentialities for resolving the challenges. Since Imo State, despite all her potentialities in tourism, still encounter serious financial challenges/constraints as evidenced by her inability to pay salaries and contract bills, the need to further look inward to generate more funds through local resources becomes very necessary. It is in this direction that the necessity to conscientise the people of Imo State for effective management of tourist attractions in the State comes to the fore. The question that arises therefore is what conscientisation strategies will promote effective management of tourist attractions towards development of communities in Imo State? Exposure of these conscientisation strategies is the problem of this study. Tourism is currently the world’s largest industry with annual revenues of over three trillion dollars. It provides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the country’s largest employer. Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that provides a travel experience, including transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking, retail shops, entertainment businesses and other hospitality and tourism services provided for individuals travelling away from home. According to Enemuo, Ogechi B. and Amaechi, (2015), tourism is a temporary movement of people to destination outside their normal places of work andresidence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, the facilities created and the servicesprovided to care for their needs. The development in which environment is the key component of tourism development. The attributed of environment can either be viewed as natural or cultural. Tourism development takes place where the natural/cultural environment is attractive and desirable. Mass media is defines as that which covers all the activities and process to bring buyersand sellers together. Mass media is the mode of communication which provides information about products,service and places; people move to different destinations for the purpose of leisure, rest, sightseeing andrecreation. Their choices of destination depend upon the information they get from mass media. That is, they choose destination based on what they have heard, read or seen from mass media. Mass media is anon-personal channel of broadcasting a message to the general public through television, Radio, Newspapers,journals and internets etc. According to Echtner and Ritchie (2013) the main purpose of advertising a tourism destination is to create awareness, promote product of the industry, service brand image and for communication on the existence of such tourism destination in Imo State. The internet’s vast capacity enables each media to exhaustivelyinvestigate and publish in-depth analysis. Mass media have a crucial role to play in tourism development. Therelationship between tourism development and mass media is virtual dependent on mass media because the vastmajority of travel decisions are made by tourists who have never seen the attractions (Ananda, 2011). Tourism development and mass media refers to all the activities such as skill development, jobs and wealth creation and marketing of tourism products through various channels of mass media (Ananda, 2011) so that tourists get toknow about those tourism potentials we have in Imo State. The media no doubt are pivotal instruments in society’s development as well as promoters of culture. The media functions within the nexus of society and just like the media cannot function effectively without the enabling environment provided by the society; the society itself cannot function well without the media. “The media are important shapers of our perception and ideas. They are conscious industries which provide not simple information about the world, but ways of seeing and understanding it” (Orlu, Orlu, 2013, p.124). This movement of people from their location to another in order to participate in such cultural activity is what some scholars’term cultural tourism. Onijah-Obi (Cited in Chuku, 2011) explains that: The most interesting aspects of tourism and culture are inthe areas of cultural diversity. It is thisdifference inculture and values that allures and motivates tourists to leave their communities foranother – to relax, to observe and to learn….Cultural tourism has to do with the rich cultural heritageof a people in the area of dances, music, custom, dresses, festivals, historical monuments, images, artsand crafts (p.85). Chuku (2011) notes further that these cultural heritages do not market themselves but must be packaged by the people. Insome cultures, members of the society are involved in the propagation of their culture (p.85). From the above assertion, it is clear that one of such members of the society who are involved in the propagation of theirculture are the media because they have the capacity to transmit to a large, heterogeneous and scattered audience. 1.2 Statement of the Study Imo state has for some time been experiencing immense improvement in tourism. The state is one of the few states in the country that is being patronized in terms of tourism and Imo State tourism board owerri is the body behind the development of tourism in the state. And the state tourism board has many tourism attractions like arts etc. in tourism, Imo State is not the only state that has tourism board but its services is always being sought by tourists in the country and foreign tourists. 1.3 Objectives of the Study The main objective of this study is to analyze the role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board. The specific of the study are: 1. To examine how mass media promote tourism. 2.To find out how mass media advertising stimulate demand in tourism. 3.To find out the role mass media advertising plays in the development of tourism. 4. To appraise whether mass media advertising has really contributed favourably to tourism development in Imo State. 5. Determine the extent mass media advertising have gone in increase of tourism development in Imo State. 6. To find out how mass media advertising contribute to the dissemination of product or service to target markets. 7. To appraise the contribution of mass media advertising to profitability in tourism development. 8. To make recommendations as to how to make mass media advertising more effective and efficient in tourism development. 1.4 Research Questions In study the researcher intends to find out: 1. Why Imo state tourism board is a success in tourism? 2. Is the success as a result of the role mass media play? 3. Why do people prefer the state tourism centers to other state tourism centers? 4. Is mass media advertising here asking the demand for tourism in the state? 1.5 Research Hypothesis The following hypothetical statement are designed to help the researcher in his analysis. They are represented both in null and alternative hypothesis. Ho is used for null hypothesis while H1 for alternative hypothesis. Hypothesis 1 H0: Mass media advertising does not favour tourism development. H1: Mass media advertising affect tourism development favorably Hypothesis II H0:The use of mass media advertising has not been of help to Imo state tourism board, owerri. H1:The use of advertising has been of help to Imo state tourism board, owerri. 1.6 Significance of the Study This study is very timely because many company executives are still not sure of how much attention and money that will be accrued to advertising using the mass media. Marketing managers stand to benefit tremendously by this study because the study will make clearer the role of advertising in business, which cannot be replaced by any other promotion. This study will help to correct the impression in some marketing managers that advertising is meant to generate as must sales as possible not minding the means. They will lean through this study that advertising must not over step social and legal norms.This study will be of immense benefit to all state governments in Nigeria, also to the organized private sector. The study will make known the important role of mass media advertising in both tangible products and services. And the study will enable the federal state and local governments to stop wasting huge sum of money which are not being channeled well. And the study will make the country’s aspiration of high economic growth and development in this democratic dispensation attainable. 1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study The scope of this study is center on the role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board. 1.8 Assumptions This research work is meant to examine the role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board. To check how mass media has affect tourism either positively or negatively. 1.9 Limitation of the Study Theresearchworkislimitedtothe role of the mass media in tourism development in imo state a case study of imo state tourism board.Themainconstraintoftheresearchisdividedintothefollowing parts. a) Timeconstraints-duetotheshorttimegivenforthestudy,the researchercouldnotgetalltherequiredinformationneededforthe study. b) Finance-asaresultofmoneyconstrainttheresearcherhadnot enoughmoneytocarryoutthestudybeyondthelevel.The researchercouldnotvisitplaceswherenecessaryinformation relevantto thestudycouldbeobtained. c) Attitudeofrespondents–someoftherespondentswereunwillingto cooperatewiththeresearcherbecausetheyfelt,theyhavenothing tobenefitfromthestudybothfinanciallyandotherwise.totheresearcher. 1.10 Conceptual and Operational Definition of the Study For better understanding, key concepts and terms as used in this work are explained thus: Media: This refers to the use of communication strategies to achieve social development. They include the mass media generally considered to be newspaper, magazine, radio, television, films, books and the internet including any other communication strategy that may help in sensitizing and educating the Nigerian populace on issues of tourism development. A medium is called a “mass media” if it reaches many people simultaneously (at the same time) and if it uses a technological device located between the sender and receiver. Tourism: Refers to the actions of human beings who undertake a trip for pleasure. In this regard, people who come into Imo State for site seeing or pleasure. Development: This refers to social development geared towards the development of human beings and the environment. Whatever will enhance the wellbeing of the human being and the environment wherein he lives is seen as development. Advertising:This is making known to the public through any mass media about the goods or service available to an organization. It is paid for by the organization and it is not personal Paid Form: The advertiser purchases the media time or space for telling a strong about the product or service. Non – Personal:Advertising is not take – face presentation but must pass through one media. An Identified Sponsor:The source of every advertising message is known . Product:Product is a tangible something is demand as being capable of satisfying needs and wants. Service:These are separately identifiable intangible activities which provide want satisfaction when marketed to consumer. This is the business of providing tourism attraction for tourists.Get Complete Materials