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The necessity for improved work performance has been acknowledged globally and the fact that this depends on efficient and effective training and development programmes cannot be downplayed. Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to successfully perform a job. The study aimed at finding out the impact of training and development on work performance of CHRAJ staff –Ashanti Region. It focused on how training needs assessments are conducted, the various training methods employed, the training policies and procedures available, the impact of training and development on work performance and how training and development programmes are evaluated in the Commission. To achieve these, data was obtained from both primary and secondary sources and both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The study found out that training needs assessments are mostly conducted through annual appraisal process and are determined by management of the Commission and that basic skills and capabilities are identified for different workers in each department. The study recommends that appraisal should be revised to reflect professional and specialized needs of staff through periodic examinations in the form of simulation to identify training needs. There should also be active involvement of staff and their immediate supervisors in the determination of training and development needs. Again, it is recommended that a mix of training methods should be adopted and there should be both pre and post evaluation of training programmes
1.0 Background of the study Human resource is seen as the most priceless asset of every organization: be it a service or product industry. The effectiveness and success of any organization, therefore, depend to a large extent on the quality of this resource. Consequently, every investment in the form of training and development of employees must be properly aligned to the objectives of the organization to achieve the needed results. The strategic effectiveness holds that there are benefits to be derived from employee training, if that training is part of a consistent set of human resource management practices (Brown et al 1993). The Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice [CHRAJ] is a semi-autonomous body established by an Act of parliament, Act 456 of the 1992 constitution of Ghana. The Commission exists to enhance the scale of good governance, democracy, integrity, peace and social development, by promoting, protecting and enforcing fundamental human rights and freedoms and administrative justice for all persons in Ghana. The Commission comprises of a Commissioner who is directly responsible for the administrative and finance function, two Deputy Commissioners, who have oversight responsibilities of the legal and investigations, public education and anti-corruption mandates, supported by three Directors who also have direct responsibility for the core functions of the institution – management of the Commission. There are ten Regional Directors, who perform the functions of the Commission at the regional level, and currently, there are District Directors in 110 districts throughout the country. Bartel (1994) and D’Arcimoles (1997) suggested that employee training directly enhances firms’ performances by raising the general level of skills. Consequently, as employees become more highly motivated and highly skilled, their task performance improves and organisational effectiveness is directly enhanced. Employee training in this regard may be viewed as a discrete management practice, one that directly enhances the human capital of the firm and so directly leads to performance improvements in these areas. This study aims at establishing a relationship between employees training and development, and its impact on work performance by examining the direct effects of training and development. Gee and Nystrom (1999) studied the levels of skill training in 342 US manufacturing plants and found that “different levels of skills training are strategically related to different levels of quality management practices.” Limited and one-off training programmes were associated with quality by inspection whilst comprehensive employee training was associated with the adoption of full total quality management programmes. There is some evidence that manufacturers implementing quality management programmes do strategically target their training efforts (Sinnott et al., 1998). Many manufacturers it seems, do provide training that is designed to suit the type of quality management programme. Skills are developed that underpin the integrity of the management system. If employees are to experience flexibility and effectiveness on the job, they need to acquire and develop knowledge and skills, and if they are to believe that they are valued by the organisation they work for, then they need to see visible signs of management commitment to their training and career needs. Training and development are the process of investing in people so that they are equipped to perform their job functions effectively and efficiently. These processes are part of the overall human resource management approach that results in people being motivated to perform (Barron and Hagerty, 2001). It is an undeniable fact that training and development of employees is an issue that has to be faced by every serious minded organisation. However, the amount, quality and quantity of training carried out differ tremendously from one organisation to another. According to Cole (2002), factors influencing the quantity and quality of training and development activities include; the degree of change in the external environment, the degree of internal change, the availability of suitable skills within the existing workforce and the extent to which management see training as a motivational factor at the workplace. Training and development as a learning process involve the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to successfully perform a job. Several reasons exist for an organisation to conduct training programmes for its employees. Some of these reasons include: economic, social, technological, and government changes, can make the skills learned today obsolete in the future; planned organisational changes (such as the introduction of new equipment) can make it necessary for employees to update their skills or acquire new ones; performance problems within an organisation such as low productivity or large scrap problems can be reduced by training and regulatory, contractual, professional, or certification issues can require an employer to provide training for its employees (Lloyd et al., 2011). 1.1 Statement of the Problem The Commission since its establishment has been allocating huge sums of money from its budgetary allocations towards training and development of staff with the sole aim of building their capacities to enable them perform their respective functions effectively and efficiently. Additionally, the Commission has signed a memorandum of understanding [MOU] with its international donor partner, Danida, where every year Danida finances most training programmes for the Commission’s core staff. Similarly, Danida periodically offers some senior staff of the Commission the opportunity to develop themselves by undergoing foreign training in Denmark to upgrade their knowledge and skills. In spite of all these interventions, the Commission is still confronted with performance challenges of staff. The aim of this research is to find out whether training and development help employees to improve on their overall performance to help achieve organizational goals and objectives. In furtherance to the above, many challenges have been identified. These include but not limited to the following: absence of functional training and development departments, lack of competent resource personnel, attitude of employers and employees towards training and development programmes, improper needs assessment to determine the actual needs of individual employees and that of the organization. Therefore the purpose of the study was to ascertain whether training and development has impact on employee’s work performance within an organisation. 1.2 Objectives of the study The objectives of the study are categories into two (2) main forms: General objective and Specific objectives. 1.2.1 General Objective The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of training and development on employees work performance at the Commission on Human Rights & Administrative Justice (CHRAJ). 1.2.2 Specific Objectives The specific objectives of the study include: 1. To identify how training needs assessment is conducted at CHRAJ. 2. To determine the training and development policies and procedures at CHRAJ. 3. To examine the various methods of training and development used at the commission. 4. To examine the impact of training and development on work performance at CHRAJ. 5. To identify measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of training and development. 6. To provide relevant recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of training and development at CHRAJ. 1.3 Research Questions The questions below form the basis for the stated research objectives. 1. How is training needs assessment conducted at CHRAJ? 2. What training and development policies and procedures are available at CHRAJ? 3. What training and development methods are used at the Commission? 4. What impact does training and development have on the staff of the Commission? 5. What measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of training and development? 6. What relevant recommendations can be made to help improve the effectiveness of training and development at CHRAJ? 1.4 Significance of the study It is expected that the outcome of the study will enable Management, who are the policy makers of the Commission, to better appreciate the importance and impact of strategic training and development on work performance of staff members. Again, it is hoped that the findings of the study will serve as an important reference guide in the development of appropriate future training and development content and methodologies for the improvement of work performance. Additionally, the relevant recommendations will help ensure proper design, implementation and maintenance of strategies to manage people for optimum organisational performance including the development of policies and processes to support these strategies for the achievement of organization goals. Furthermore, it is hoped that academicians and other researchers will find interest in the outcome of this study. 1.5 Overview of research methodology Data for the study was obtained from two (2) main sources: Primary and Secondary sources. The primary source involves interviews and the use of questionnaires while the secondary sources were obtained from journals, periodicals, articles, newspapers, books and other publications. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze data collected. The sample population is eighty-eight (88), which is the total number of staff members of CHRAJ in the Ashanti Region. There will be no need for any sample technique as the whole population would be used in the analysis. The quantitative data collected from the questionnaire were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Science analysis programme (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. 1.6 Scope of the study The study was carried out in the commission’s offices in the Ashanti Region. CHRAJ has a regional office, one municipal and15 district offices in the Ashanti region. It is the region with the highest number of district offices and invariably the largest staff population. The scope is based on the concept of training and development which is arousing significant interest in most organizations of which CHRAJ – Ashanti Region is no exception. 1.7 Limitations of the study The research was not without any limitations. In the first place CHRAJ is represented in all the ten  regions of Ghana but the researcher focused his study only on the Ashanti region and it is possible that if more regions had been selected varying views and opinions would have been captured to give a more true reflection of the actual situations on the ground. Additionally, time and material resource constraints were major barriers to the study. Moreover, the difficulty in gaining the attention and positive responses of interviewees was observed in the study. However, the above limitations did not have any significant effect on the validity and reliability of the findings of the study. 1.8 Organisation of the study This research is organized into five chapters. Chapter one begins with an introduction of the study and continues to state the problem of the study, objectives, and research questions, significance of the research, methodology used, scope and limitations of the study. An extensive and thorough review of relevant literature aimed at obtaining important knowledge on the subject matter is captured in chapter two. In chapter three, the methodology used including the population size, sampling size, data collection and how data was analysed was discussed. Chapter four entails the findings on the impact of training and development on work performance at CHRAJ. The outcome of the data analysis was discussed in the context of the objectives in chapter one and the literature reviewed in chapter two. Chapter five ends the study with a summary of the main findings, recommendations and conclusions drawn from the study.