TELEVISION FOR CULTURAL LEARNING; A CASE STUDY OF PERE ODE ON EKITI STATE TELEVISION (EKTV)
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Television as a means of communication helps in curbing and reducing societal vices. It is also a tool for cultural transformation. The research work investigates the state of cultural decadence and erosion of indigenous culture among indigenes and residents of Ado Ekiti, using cultural norms theory and social responsibility theory. The study discovers that television serves as a tool for cultural propagation, preservation and promotion. It investigated the efficiency of Pere Ode a talk show on Ekiti State television, (EKTV) Ado Ekiti in teaching and promoting culture. It also discovered certain difficulties such as illiteracy, beliefs and gender equality facing television stations in the process of promoting culture. Data were sourced for through the administration of questionnaire, interview and use of bibliotical materials. The study concludes that television should continually create culture based programme that can help promote and preserve societal values and transform society in general.
Background to study Edward B. Taylor (33) defined culture “as a complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, crafts, law, moral, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society”. In line with this definition M. T Akinlade (95) also said “culture in this sense can be seen as a way of life because it permeates all facets of human life from birth to death”. Also, UNESCO defined culture as “set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs”. In the same way, the Cultural Policy of Nigeria in Anyakoroma (1) defines culture as “the totality of way of life evolved by a people in their attempt to meet the challenges of living in their environment which gives order and meaning to their political, economic, aesthetic and religious norms and modes of organization distinguishing a people from their neighbours”. Culture is thus the totality of the way of life of people. Culture entails how people behave generally in their community; that is how they talk, dress, respect elders, greet and above all, culture constitutes the behavioral modes of individuals within the society. Today, our immediate society is faced with a lot of vices as a result of poor behavioral modes by individuals. One of the major factor that contributes to poor behavioral modes in the society is the fact that people are no longer familiar with or are completely detached from their culture through which they learn about morals and ethics. So, if people are conversant with their culture, they would know how to behave properly and the society will be a better place for everyone. For example if the people cultivate the habit of dressing properly there will be less case of rape and sexual harassment particularly among the youths. Also culture teaches manners of greetings and how to talk to elders within the society, but most people in the society today have poor manners of addressing people and this usually lead to misunderstanding and chaos within the society. As a way of looking for ways through which culture can be revived in the society, the television medium becomes the best outlet through which this can be achieved. As a major medium of communication; the television medium gives the needed information that informs and educates people about their culture. This is achieved through programmes such as music shows, talk shows, drama series and documentaries. Many of these programmes promote cultural values, norms and ethics of the society. These television shows also help to promote cultural values as a means to transform Nigerian culture. Furthermore, the need for a better Nigeria informed the choice of this research, as the researcher wishes to examine ways and manners of making the society a better place. So, this researcher embarked on the study of television show in order to showcase ways and manners of ensuring that culture is taught and revived to ensure a better society for all. Statement of the problem Local broadcast content in Nigeria is meant to be a conduit through which the people experience culture. Hence cultural learning can be enhanced by promoting and sustaining the moral and community life of the Nigeria people. Despite the stipulation of the NBC code, television broadcasting in Nigeria (especially private stations) continue to be criticized over the foreign nature of its content, while its local content feature a high level of hybridization- an infusion of western and Nigeria culture- which do not necessarily compliment the culture of its viewers, but which exposes them to modes and values that are contradictory to their own culture. This raises the major concern over the cultural modes and values that would be transmitted to the next generation of Nigerian youths who constitute the majority of television viewers and are at risk of losing the basic thrust of their culture. This research also points to the issue of low level of cultural education and awareness among people in the society. The situation is responsible for the high rate of societal vices. This research aims therefore at identifying causes of cultural illiteracy and imperialism within the society. It explores how television shows have helped to promote norms and values within the society. Significance of study This research work is expected to serve as an eye opener for all categories of people to learn about their culture through television shows. The work is significant because it will explain in details why people need to be conversant with their culture. In this research work, ways and manners by which people can learn about their culture are identified and explained. Also the relevance of television shows will be examined as a medium through which cultural knowledge and awareness can be acquired. A television show promotes cultural norms, values and ethics just as it serves as a means of acquiring cultural education which will aid and promote societal decency. The research becomes significant because it is one of the ways of exposing the television as a means of promoting Nigerians cultural heritage among youths. The study is also expected to benefit diverse sectors of the economy as follows: – Media house: mass media organizations will benefit from this work because it will enable them to pay more attention to cultural preservation and promotion, aside serving as a veritable agent of socialisation. -Citizens: Nigerians will through this study know the benefit of mass media in the area of socialization and teach their children what and when to watch television. – Government: government at all levels will benefit from this study especially by partnering with community media to showcase and boost cultural values of the society. In the light of the above, this research draws attention to the need to assiduously harmonize the cultural elements of the Nigeria people, and in most specific terms examine the working of Ekiti State Television (EKTV) in the area of cultural promotion. Aims and objectives of study Some of the objectives of this study are centered on the need; 1. To create greater awareness in people the need to embrace their culture and tradition. 2. To establish the fact that society can be a better place if people live and practice the good aspects of their culture. 3. To showcase how television talk shows and programmes help in the teaching and learning of culture. 4. To enrich cultural programming on television 5. To encourage critical selection of foreign culture on Nigeria television 6. To create awareness about preservation of indigenous culture using television as a medium Scope of study. This research work shall focus on Ekiti State Television (EKTV) and shall administer its questionnaire (audience survey) on people dwelling in Ado-Ekiti, capital of Ekiti state. Research Questions This study shall answer the following questions: • How does the television station use its cultural programmes to improve people’s way of life and make the society a better place? • How does exposure to cultural programmes improve the quality of life of the people? • How can television shows aid cultural transformation? • What types of television programmes can facilitate cultural awareness? • What challenges are facing television stations in producing culture-based programmes? • Does EKTV create awareness about preservation of indigenous Nigerian culture? • How does EKTV transmit Nigeria culture through its programmes? Operational definition of terms This aspect of study is aimed at explaining the meaning of terms used in this research work in relation to its usage. Television: This is an audio-visual device that is used for conveying messages from a source to a large and heterogeneous audience Culture: Culture is a word for people’s ‘way of life, meaning the way groups do things. Different groups of people may have different cultures. A culture is passed on to the next generation through learning, Transformation: This connotes a complete change of something from one stage to the other.Get Complete Materials