The evaluation of the effectiveness of radio advertisement of family planning programs


Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)


This research work is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the radio advertisements on family planning programmes bearing in mind the impact of family planning advertisement on the radio audience. The research method used was survey method and questionnaire being the instrument. The findings got from the questionnaire shows that the people of Kaduna metropolis now know where to go and get the proper family planning method of their choice. And also what family planning is all about. I hereby recommend that the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria should not relent in their efforts of advocating for family planning programmes.



1.1 Background of the Study There is evidence from a number of studies that individuals’ exposure to mass media messagespromoting family planning influences contraceptive behavior (Piotrowand Phyllis1990, Bankole and Akinrinola,1996, Westoff and Bankole 1997, Kincaid 2000). For example, in Nigeria, use of modern contraception, intent to use, and desire for fewer children were found to be associated with exposure to media messages on family planning (Bankole et al. 1996). A similar study in Tanzania found that women exposed to a mix of media promoting family planning were more likely to use family planning (Jato and Miriam, 1999). A number of models have emerged from different fields identifying specific pathways to behavior change and offering insights to programs as they try to influence and change behavior. Several have been very influential in explaining the effects of mass media campaigns on fertility-related behavior. Ideation change, defined as a change in the way of thinking through the diffusion of new ideas and practices, has been identified as an important determinant of fertility decline (Cleland and Wilson 1987). The ideation model derives from the diffusion of innovation theoryand includes five stages through which an individual progresses: knowledge, persuasion,decision, implementation, and confirmation (Rogers, 1995). The input/output persuasion modelconsiders how various aspects of communication influence the behavioral outcome ofcommunication (McGuire, 1989). The Steps to Behavior Change is an adaptation of the diffusionof innovations theory and the input/output persuasion model and consists of five major stages ofchange: knowledge, approval, intention, practice, and advocacy (Piotrow and Phyllis, 1997). Thisframework emphasizes that there are several intermediate steps that people move through beforethey change their behavior. This suggests that different messages and approaches in behaviorchange communication are required to reach people at different stages in the process. Several empirical studies have confirmed that mass media campaigns have effects at differentstages in the process to behavior change. According to a study in Nepal, exposure to mass mediahad an indirect effect on contraceptive use through increases in interpersonal communication, aswell as positive changes in attitudes and perceived social norms regarding family planning (Storey and Douglas, 1999). Similarly, women exposed to a mass media campaign in Tanzania werefound to have more positive attitudes towards family planning and to discuss family planning with their spouses (Jato et al. 1999). In Mali, exposure to a campaign was linked to more favorable attitudes towards family planning and a decline in the proportion of men and women who believed that Islam opposes family planning (Kane et al. 1998). It has been suggested that exposure to messages broadcast through a variety of channels is themost effective way to change knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Behavior changecommunication (BCC) campaigns often include a combination of radio spots or advertisements,radio dramas, television advertisements, videos, print materials such as newsletters and leaflets,posters, clinic-based counseling, and community activities such as festivals, theatre, or groupmeetings (Kincaid et al. 1992, Piotrow et al. 1997). The use of multiple media types is expected to reach a larger audience and help reinforce messages (Piotrowet al. 1997). Studies have also shown that there is a dose-response effect between the amount of exposure to family planning messages in the mass media (as defined by the number of different types of media) and anincrease in use of family planning methods. In Tanzania, Jato et al. (1999) found that the moretypes of media sources of family planning messages, the greater the likelihood of contraceptive use. Likewise, Kane et al. (1998) found that contraceptive knowledge and use and more favorable attitudes towards family planning were positively associated with the number of mass media interventions in Mali. In Uganda, the Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH) project, one of the country’s largest reproductive health programs, strove to increase service utilization and change behaviors related to family planning and reproductive health through BCC activities. The project conducted a number of mass media campaigns in collaboration with its implementing partners since its inception in 1995.1 Focusing on about 30% of the total population, DISH operated in 12 of the country’s 56 districts: Jinja, Kampala, Kamuli, Kasese, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbarara, Nakasongola, Ntungamo, Rakai, and Sembabule. Several multi-channel campaigns were implemented between 1995 and 1999 to promote the use of modern family planning methods. The campaigns employed short spots on the radio and on television, as well as a weekly radio drama called “Choices” that integrated family health messages. The project assisted the Ministry of Health to distribute the national “Yellow Flower” logo and then the new “Rainbow over the Yellow Flower” logo to identify health facilities offering family planning and integrated reproductive health services respectively, and conducted publicity encouraging couples to visit facilities displaying the logos for information and services. Posters, flip charts for service providers, and a “Health Matters” newsletter were distributed to health facilities. Newsletters were also distributed through newspapers and during community events. A range of other community education activities included drama performances, video shows, and village meetings. All materials were produced in three or four languages. Furtheractivities were carried out in the DISH districts including the broadcast of a weekly radioprogram called “Capitol Doctor” and the social marketing of contraceptives. The “Protector” brand condom, “Pilplan” brand oral contraceptives, and “Injectaplan” brand injectables were marketed through radio advertisements as well as billboards and posters at health facilities. Preliminary analysis using data from the 1999 DISH Evaluation Survey (DES) suggested that women and men who were exposed to various family planning messages on the radio had higher levels of modern contraceptive use, and higher intention to adopt family planning in the near future among non-users. For example, 16% of women mentioned radio advertisements as among the influences on their decision to practice family planning. Moreover, an examination of timetrendsdrawing on additional data from the 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) and the 1997 DES showed strong overall increases in contraceptive use and intent among the population living in the target districts (Katende et al. 2000). 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem For a very long time, Nigerians have been indifferent to family planning. In some cultures, people’s dignity, prestige and power were reflected on the number of wives and children they had. Nigerian government in the past was also unconcerned about family planning as their basic amenities for their citizenry. According to Nwankwo (1999, P.15). The major factor resulting in rapid population growth is the fact that many couples who would have wanted to limit the size of their family were discouraged by religious or cultural constraints. There are some religious beliefs that discourage any physical or material interference with the laws of nature or God, as children are believed to be gift from God. Furthermore, culturally Nigerians often say that “it is only God that knows the child that will succeed one”. This saying was as a result of the precarious nature of the health facilities in the past. Then infant mortality rate was high so, in order not to lose the few children one has to measles, cholera, kwashiorkor and other health hazards prevalent then they resulted to having many children thereby throwing the social and economic implication over board. This belief is still in existence till now. 1.2 Objectives of the Study The main purpose of this study is to: 1. Evaluate the extent to which vernacular or local radio stations contribute to the level of awareness on family planning methods among reproductive women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.. 2. Formulate population policy to check the situation by the government. 3. Find out the perception of the various family planning advertisements on the radio by its audience. The decision to use the radio is as result of the fact that it is a strong and effective medium employed to make people be aware of innovations and the programmes aired and it does not attract any unit cost to the consumer. Once you posses a portable radio, you can tune into any programme at anytime at extra charge. What’s more, little effort is needed in getting access to the radio, as consumers do not need to walk or drive about looking for radio programmes. In addition, radio is omnipresent or ubiquitous that is, it can be found everywhere meaning it has awider coverage than the other media as radio can easily be afforded by an average citizen. 1.3 Research Questions This research study is set to find answers to the following research questions. 1.To what extent do vernacular or local radio stations contribute to the level of awareness on family planning methods among reproductive women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria? 2. To what extent do advertisements on radio influence the public in adopting family planning. 1.4 Research Hypotheses H0: Vernacular or local radio stations do not contribute to the level of awareness on family planning methods among reproductive women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. H1: Vernacular or local radio stationscontribute to the level of awareness on family planning methods among reproductive women in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria. H0: Advertisements on radios do not influence the public in adopting family planning. H1: Advertisements on radios influence the public in adopting family planning. 1.4 Significance of the Study This research study is prompted by many factors. Some of these are the continuing interest in and awareness of family planning by Nigerians and also the establishment of more family planning units by the government. The study will also help to determine the extent of knowledge of family planning among radio audience and likewise their attitude towards this programme. Also the research should help to ascertain the importance of electronic media especially the radio as a media of bringing about people’s awareness of innovations. It will give indications of which medium is most effective in carrying out the advertisement messages. The research will also determine the various social, economic and cultural factors which may influence people’s attitudes towards family planning. As a result of this study, the researcher hopes to enlighten the Nigerian public more on the benefits one stands to gain from a well-planned family. Such benefits includes: increase in standard of living of the whole family; safeguarding of the good health of mother and child and limiting the size of the family to the one they can conveniently cater for. It will assist the government to find possible ways of improving on the family planning policy. 1.5 Scope of the Study The scope of this study is centered on the evaluation of the effectiveness of radio advertisement of family planning programs using Kaduna metropolis as the case study.

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