The title of this research is Dam operation base on water level. The goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with automatic control system. In this project sensors are place at different level of the dam and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are to design an automatic water monitoring system, to incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine, to prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad, to avoid wastage of water and since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy. The project was design to automatically control the pump or flow of water which ensures constant reserve of water in the Dam. The scope of the design was keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a well-built automatic water pump was use d to achieve this aim, the automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the Dam.
1.1 Background of the Study Dams are the major sources of water supply to cities, they also play a vital role in flood control and can assist river navigation. Most of the dams are built to serve more than one purpose and their benefits are manifold. It is necessary to implement some sort of communication between the metering systems and computer models to provide support in managing the complex systems of the hydro power plants. Generally, the dams are monitored through traditional surveillance techniques and the water management except the monitoring of level of water in some of the dams which is automatized. Management of water resources through dams becomes complex as the number of users depending on dams is huge and these users may have conflicting interests. This situation gets much complex with the fact that the available resources are limited with high possibilities of droughts and floods. This affects the densely populated areas. Dam monitoring is a tedious and long term process which has to be improved step by step. A new system for dam water monitoring and management should be established which can provide water level in real time and can allow us to come to quick conclusions regarding the safety operations of the dams. Internet of Things (IoT) can be defined as a network of devices which are interconnected. It comprises a set of sensors, communication network as well as software enabledelectronic devices that enables end users to acquire accurate data from time to time through the communication channel and allows for data interchange between users and the connected devices. This system can be used to automatize the control of dams without human interference. This can also be used to gather information on the level of water throughout the country and can be used to route water based on the requirements. We can get information on the water availability in a particular region and route the water to that area if there’s scarcity. This helps a lot in irrigation. Keeping a check on the safety of dam from time to time is one of the important measure to ensure the safety of dams. Use of Wireless sensors network with software for dam safety management helps in improving the functionality of dams. All the sensors in the cluster of dam such as Water Level Sensor, Vibration Sensor and Pressure Sensor can be used to sense Water level ,Vibrations on the wall of dam and Pressure exerted on the wall of dam from the dam into the main pipeline in Litres per minute respectively (NiteenMohod, 2017).Differential Pressure sensors are fitted at equal spaces along the main pipeline which can sense the pressure difference because of the breaking or leakage of the pipeline and will immediately be communicated to the observer. In case of floods the routing of flood water can be done more efficiently considering the level of water across different dams. Surveillance of areas near the dams can be done using cameras which transmit live footage to the base station and will be helpful in identifying the presence of people near the dams and can help in ensuring safety while releasing water during flash floods. Internet of Things technology focusses on making the ecosystem of sensors more and more intelligent by establishing a connection to the internet. Collecting the data regarding the failed sensors enables us to generate more reliable equipment which in turn improves the reliability of the dams. Integration of Internet of Things with big data, cloud computing and WSN will enhance the operation capability to dams to a greater extent (A.C. Khetre, 2013). The entire processing of data will be done on the cloud which will ensure that the data retrieval and issuing of commands can be made faster with more reliability. The system has an automatic flow of water or pumping system attached to it so as to refill the dams once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while offing the pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of available water resource in many reason of the word is now a dominant issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management. Water is commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption. Therefore, efficient use and water monitoring are potential constraint for home or office water management system. Moreover, the common method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed pump at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is reached in the water tank. This water level control, controls monitor and maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control systems are widely used for monitoring of liquid levels in reservoirs, silos. Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is actually being reached with disbursement linked to sensing and automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based automated water level sensing and controlling or using 555 timer IC. 1.1 Aims and Objectives The goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with automatic control system. In this project sensors are place at different level of the dam and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are 1. To design an automatic water monitoring system 2. To incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine 3. To prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad 4. To avoid wastage of water 5. Since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy 1.2 Justification of the Study Automatic water level monitor came into existence because of human error and inconsistence that is associated with manually operated water pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know that the water level has drop so low until the dam is completely empty. This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an automatic water level control and automatic pump short down. 1.3 Scope of the Project The project was design to automatically control the pump or flow of water which ensures constant reserve of water in the Dam. The scope of the design was keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a well-built automatic water pump was use d to achieve this aim, the automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the Dam. 1.4 Constraints The biggest setback experience during the course of this project is difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like pump and buffer for programming 1.5 Limitations Of The Project It is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric pump and cannot be use to control industrial water pump above 5 amps Block Diagram Overview This project report writing is written is design in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below Fig 1.0 Block Diagram Of Automatic Water Level Control Dam 1.6 Project Report Organization The organization of this project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage it covers all the activities encountered during the research work. The first chapter of this work took care of the introduction, aims and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization. Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on description of system and some of the component used were emphasized chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation, construction, testing and packaging of the pump to dam. Chapter five is all about the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the project.Get Complete Materials