Design and construction of solar powered battery charging with reverse current protecting

Dam operation base on water level
August 15, 2019
Digital controlled home automation
August 15, 2019

Price: 3000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

ABSTRACT

Solar energy is a very efficient source of green energy that is available for free. But it needs to be coupled with proper storage for best use. Also to store it we need to use charge controlling circuitry to protect panel from reverse currents as well as to charge the battery efficiently. So we demonstrate this concept by using a mini solar panel to charge a rechargeable pencil cell battery. Also we use a charge control circuit designed to stop reverse current flow and charge the battery effectively using the solar panel. Thus this allows us to effectively provide solar battery charging with reverse current protection. Non-conventional power generation is one of the fastest growing sectors. Globally, all countries are busy developing and implementing non-conventional power to bridge the electricity demand and power supply gap. The sun is the ultimate source of limitless solar energy in the form of light and heat. Light of the sun is directly converted into electrical energy without any inter mediate step. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) power is leading ahead of the other sources. In a solar power generation system, the PV cell plays a major role. Rural coastal communities in developing countries along the equator lack electricity, due to the expenses involved with connecting them to the power grid. An affordable local solution, such as on-site micro power generation, would benefit the local communities and fulfil their basic lightning and ventilation needs. Equatorial coastal areas have constant high incident solar radiation. Therefore, these regions would be ideal to implement a solar power generation unit. This project involves the development of a solar panel to generate direct current (DC) power that will be used to charge a battery. And this DC voltage from battery is converted into AC using inverter. This system will provide the basic electricity requirements for the house. The initial investment may be excessive for the target population, these costs are expected to go down if the design is mass produced. Solar power source is ‘free’ making this system viable long-term solution for electrification. The implementation of a project such as this will make the use of hazardous items such as kerosene lamps and car batteries redundant. Purpose of investment in solar power project is to enter in development of green energy technology, which is the only ultimate source of energy for future generations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Crisis of electricity is a major problem in the present era. This problem is even more critical for a densely populated poverty corrupted developing third world country like ours. Many of our people live here without the basic facility of electricity. In some area outside the city side, there is general electricity service called „PALLI BIDYUT‟ which can supply a very limited amount of electricity in those area that is unable cover up the basic demand of people from those area. Day by day crisis of electricity is increasing whereas no other solution is left for us without using the solar power or wind turbine to generate electricity. Again, not only we face electricity crisis but also day by the cost of gas and other natural resources like fuel, diesel , petroleum etc are rising up that is going beyond the availably of general people. Thereby such a system that can not only reduce the electricity crisis but also the crisis of petroleum or other natural resources for driving vehicles is desirable. We have designed a whole Central Solar Battery Charging Station (CSBCS) along with the successful implementation of hardware and software to represent all activities not only visually but also can be monitored and controlled from remote region. Implementation of SBCS for also includes designing of a smart charge controller with a view to decrease the battery charging time, making it capable of charging more than one battery at a time and getting the desired current from the load. 1.2 Motivation Ours is a tropical country where the amount of sunlight is mostly available to meet up the demand of producing electricity. This type of project is not new but for our country of this can be implemented successfully for commercial purpose, it can bring a revolutionary change in the lifestyle and the economical prospectus that also can increase the GDP of Bangladesh. As ours is a massively power-deficient country with peak power shortages of around 25%. More than 60% of its people do not have access to the power grid. The country only produces 3500-4200 MW of electricity against a daily demand for 4000-5200 MW on average, according to official estimates. Solar energy is an ideal solution as it can provide griddles power and is totally clean in terms of pollution and health hazards. Since it saves money on constructing electricity transmission lines, it‟s economical as well. The solar panel providers in Bangladesh are now expecting the price of batteries and accessories to drastically reduce. Moreover, after the current budget of 2012 the price for per unit electricity will be amplified more. It is flattering tougher for ordinary mass to cope up with the mounting price of per unit electricity of PDB. So the best alternative is to development of SBCS in our country effectively. Considering all these we are motivated to do this project as it will help our people in several ways. Our people are not too much efficient in monitoring. We can make use of software available too. Through monitoring we can control our system from remote areas thereby efficiently that paves us to do the development of software implementation thereby. 1.3 Objective 1) We can charge the batteries used in solar home system or in IPS in our station and our well-developed monitoring software will save the batteries from further destructions caused by the system. 2) Our charging station can be used to charge any battery including Rickshaw battery or batteries used in Solar Home System either in rental or in monthly payment basis. 3) Electric lanterns used in village area can be charged as well. 4) First objective of this project is to identify reasons for the failures of existing charge control algorithms that utilize existing technologies. 5) The next goal of the project is to create new charge control algorithms that will overcome the issue of false detection while protecting the battery from repetitive overcharges. We present a new voltage based charge control algorithm. 6) Ways to increase the charging speed are critical in this application as well as in most of other applications since portable solar panel generally have low power production per square meter. So, this research also develops ways to optimize solar panels‟ output power while charging the batteries. 7) Our software is able to eliminate costs. 8) Followed by some other countries we can also replace kerosene station with Solar Battery Charging Station too with further modification. 1.4 Scope of the Study The scope of this study is to design and construction of solar powered battery charging with reverse current protecting. 1.5 Limitation of the Study Theresearchworkislimitedtothe Design and construction of solar powered battery charging with reverse current protecting.Themainconstraintoftheresearchisdividedintothefollowing parts. a) Timeconstraints-duetotheshorttimegivenforthestudy,the researchercouldnotgetalltherequiredinformationneededforthe study. b) Finance-asaresultofmoneyconstrainttheresearcherhadnot enoughmoneytocarryoutthestudybeyondthelevel.The researchercouldnotvisitplaceswherenecessaryinformation relevantto thestudycouldbeobtained. 1.6 Definition of Terms Inverterunit:ThisunitconvertsaDCvoltageintoACvoltagewiththe helpof the inverterunit. AutomaticControlUnit:Thisprovidesalltherequiredcontrolneededto meetupthe objectiveof the whole system BatteryUnit:Thisisasecondarycellunit,capableofstoringenoughDC voltagefromeithersunorACmain,ofwhichislaterconvertedtoAC voltage. 1.7 Block Diagram: Hardware Specifications • 3W Solar Panel • AA Rechargeable Battery • Resistors • Capacitors • Diodes • Charging Switch • Connectors

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