Stake holders’ assessment on the level of kwara state government’s involvement in adult literacy programme


Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)




Background to the Study Education as the whole process of the development of an independent and integrated personality, it entails training and acquisition of special skills, knowledge, attitudes and values needed by an individual to be responsible and which would enable him to contribute his own quota, to the growth of the society of which he is a member ( Jekayinfa and kolawole 2010).Education is a process whereby the adult members of a community help the young ones to learn, as Nduca (2010) stated that, education is the process of cultural transmission and renewal, it is a three- way process of inheriting a culture, changing that culture for better or worse, and passing it to the younger generation. Therefore, the worthy development of an individual for self comfort and control to some extent is a function of education. Both developed and developing nations have acknowledged that education empowers and engages the mind for the development of human and natural resources.Hence education is an inevitable instruments that catalysis national development(Heclans 2001) The provision of adult education, including reading, writing, numeracy skills, and information communication technology (ICT) for adults who wish to improve their literacy and numeracy competencies to enhance their participation in personal, social and economic life, Adult literacy programmes should be primarily focused on learning outcomes.(Heclans 2001).As observed by (Igbo 2008) adult education is an instrument for helping the active population worldwide with information communication technology (ICT), which is a decisive tool for the smooth integration of economy in the global economy. It is concerned not with preparing people for life, but rather with helping/assisting people (adults) to live more successfully as useful and acceptable members of their societies and contribute meaningfully to the development of those societies. (Fasokun 2006).Farley (2010) also put forward that people who are more educated know why they are not supposed to make prejudice comments and consequently disguise their prejudices. However, the poor public image of adult education field as an area of study for the old people is undoubtedly partly responsible for its low patronage as a discipline in Nigerians Universities (Aruma 2011). Adult education was defined by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), in Nzeneri (2008). As the entire body of organized educational process, whatever the content, level and method, whether formal or otherwise, whether they prolong or replace initial education in schools, colleges and universities as well as in apprenticeship, whereby persons regarded as adults by the society to which they belong, develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge, improve their technical or professional qualifications or turn them in a new direction and bring changes in their attitudes or behavior in the twofold perspective of full personal development and participation in balanced and independent social, economic and cultural development. Adult education is an aspect of basic education. Nigeria as a developing country is concerned about the literacy level of its citizen and as such embarked on mass literacy campaign by the use of a programme known as “literacy for all” in the year 2020. (Heclans 2001). Therefore, Access to education is an important concern to nations all over the world. In Nigeria, it is observed that many sections of the population have no access to literacy education or the life skills necessary for their economic and social well-being. Nigeria has an adult literacy rate of 59.2% and adult illiteracy rate of 40.8% (UNESCO 2015). This represents about 40 million Nigerians. Education for All (EFA) as a global movement led by UNESCO (United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults and to lead the movement and coordinate the international efforts to reach Education for All. Its key points and principles include universal access to learning; a focus on equity; emphasis on learning outcomes; broadening the means and the scope of basic education; enhancing the environment for learning; and strengthening partnerships. The cardinal goals of EFA are: 1. expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children 2. ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality 3. ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programmes 4. achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults 5. eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality 6. improving every aspect of the quality of education, and ensuring their excellence so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. Government has realized that unless aggressive measures are taken to scale up literacy, the Education for All (EFA) goals III and IV relating to learning and life-skills for all young people and 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults and youth by 2015 will not be achieved(NFE Policy Guideline 2012)). This has made the Federal Ministry of Education to launch the revitalization of youth and adult literacy programmes in March 2011 in order to help increase the literacy rate and ultimately contribute towards the achievement of EFA and Millennium Development Goals as well as the nationaldevelopment goals of empowering the people on wealth creation and economic growth. The Fundamental Requirements for Adult Education in 21st Century and the purpose of adult and non-formal education according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013) areto, provide functional literacy and continuing education for adults and youths who have never had the advantage of formal education or (dropouts) These include the nomads, migrant families, the disable, and the disadvantaged gender, to provide functional and remedial education for those who did not complete secondary education, to present education for different categories of completers of the formal education system in order to improve their basic knowledge and skills, to provide in-service, on-the-job, vocational and professional trainings for different categories of workers and professionals in order to improve their skills, and to give the adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetic, cultural, and civic education for public enlightenment. Adult education has not succeeded in achieving the above objectives. Adult education should be re-positioned to excessively launch the present adults into the orbit where they can respond to the challenges of the 21st century and make meaningful contributions to national development (Hinzen 2006) Assessing the level of adult literacy programme would provide and indicates the efforts required presently and in the future to extend literacy programme to the remaining population of the country.(Olaniran 2010). Adult education in Nigeria has a long history. As far back as the fourteen (14) century, itinerant Islamic scholars and traders in Northern part of the country taught Arabic literacy through the study of Koran. Follow by our Colonia masters (British). The British government had no clearly defined policy on education for Nigeria before 1925. Education activities in the colony were managed by colonial administrators, in consultation with Christian missions and their home offices. (Fafunwa, 1974). In 1922, a commission set up by the Phelps-Stokes Fund to look into education in West and Equatorial Africa, which included Nigeria, produced a report titled: Education in Africa. The report emphasized the need for a policy on adult and community education (Fafunwa, 1974). The commission’s recommendation for the development and institution of a policy on adult education represented the first key formal acknowledgement of the need to develop adult education alongside youth education or schooling. The commission stressed the education of the entire community if education was to result in meaningful development. To educate the children at school while the adult population remained largely illiterate and uneducated amounted to a grossly inadequate utilisation of education in development.Following the Phelps-Stokes report, the British colonial government issued its first education policy for Nigeria in 1925. The policy and its implementation strategies did not address, in any significant way, community or adult education, rather, the colonial government concentrated on school education. Consequently, a significant opportunity to begin to develop adult education in Nigeria was missed. However, in 1951, the Central Board of Education endorsed a policy on adult education. The aim of adult education, as articulated in the policy, was to organise remedial primary education for adults. This included basic adult literacy and craft-making. The policy stressed the importance of women’s participation in adult education (Fafunwa, 1974). Following the policy, adult literacy classes sprung up in many parts of Nigeria. There was considerable enthusiasm for adult literacy among the people and the governments of the three regions of Nigeria: East, West, and North. The enthusiasm was particularly strong from 1950 to 1956, but the free primary education schemes initiated from 1955 and 1957 resulted in the waning of the enthusiasm and in drastic decline in government support for adult literacy. The enormous cost of free primary education left little resources for adult literacy. Thus, the first somewhat serious attempt at adult education lost steam or even collapsed. In 1959, the Ashby Commission was appointed to determine Nigeria’s human resources needs, as well as the country’s needs for post-secondary education over the next twenty years, 1960-1980. Reviewing Nigeria’s primary, secondary and post-secondary education, the commission noted that the country had made progress in these levels and recommended further expansion. The commission was, however, curiously, silent on adult education. Consequently, very little attention was paid to its development. Nevertheless, adult education flickered in some communities unattended to by the federal government. It was barely kept alive by regional governments and voluntary agencies. Nigeria became independent in 1960. Since then, there have been several National Development Plans articulating the country’s development priorities and strategies. None of the plans provided a comprehensive framework and impetus for the development of adult education. Literacy efforts in Nigeria received a boost when UNESCO supported the establishment of an Adult Literacy Institute in Ibadan in 1965. In 1971, the Nigerian National Council for Adult Education (UNCAE) was set up becoming a “Voice” for adult education practice in Nigeria. It recorded dramatic achievements within a shorts span of time, becoming a Force to reckon in terms of the planning, implementation and evaluation of adult and non-formal education programmes in particular, the UNCAE played a leading role in driving aggressive campaigns and advocacy at government and University levels in order to ensure that Adult Education programmes were included at all levels of the education system (Aderinoye 2000). Since its inception the UNCAE has worked in collaboration with government and non-government agencies in Nigeria to establish:- • adult and Non-formal Education Agencies in all the States of the Federation from 1950, • adult and Non-formal Education Agencies in all the States of the Federation from 1950, • the Adult and Non-formal Education unit in the Federal Ministry of Education in 1974, • the National mass Education Commission (NME) in 1990, • Departments of Adult Education in Federal Universities, and to • develop a human resource base of experts in adult and non-formal education. The Nigerian National Policy on Education was adopted in 1977 and modified in 1981. The policy provides for equal access to education, including continuing and further education, and commits to the eradication of illiteracy and promotion of lifelong learning. Beyond the articulation of desired outcomes, nothing much has been achieved in terms of significant development of adult education. For instance, 28 years after the adoption of the policy, the literacy rate for Nigerians 15 years and older is about 66% (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2004). There has hardly been a sustainable, virile, and coherently comprehensive set of programs demonstrating government’s commitment to adult education as a strategic priority in Nigeria’s development. Although the National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-Formal Education was established in 1990 to monitor and coordinate adult education programs, as well as to conduct research related to the development of adult and non-formal education in the country, The consequences of neglect and agenda for action education programs continue to operate mainly as disparate, piecemeal activities that are not integrated into a coherent, purposeful strategy in pursuit of a national development vision. Many government sponsored adult education activities have been chronically anemic due to inadequate funding, and lackadaisically implemented owing largely to a historical lack of passion and vision for adult education as both a strategic goal and an instrument for national development. Adult education curricula are hardly forward-looking or responsive to the strategic needs of the economy or to the personal, social and political development needs of the vast majority of Nigerian adults. Frameworks for organising and delivering programs are hardly innovative or forward-looking. The lack or inadequacy of physical and instructional facilities in government-owned adult education training centres is indicative of the neglect and marginal status of adult education (Aderinoye, 2002). Inadequate commitment to the development of adult education is not unique to Nigeria; it is a typical phenomenon in most African countries. A number of factors account for the underdevelopment of adult education and education generally in Africa (Omolewa, 2000). They include “the constraints of funding, lack of continuity of policy, increasing huge debt, problem of gender and language” (Omolewa, 2000). A great wind of change came in 1990, when the Federal Military Governmentestablished the National Commission for mass Education (NMEC), which is charged with the responsibility of organising, monitoring and assessing of adult literacy practices in the country. The commissions’ activities are decentralized, with offices in the six geo-political zones of the country. The 36 States and all 774 local government areas. Co-ordination and supervision of literacy classes are the sole responsibility of the local adult education officers, supervisors and literacy instructions. The minimum number of literacy classes expected in any local government is ten, with additional classes managed and funded by NGO’s Examinations are conducted on the basic competencies, reading, writing and numeracy. Life skills, which are central to all the literacy programmes, are also tested (Omolewa, 2000). Having laid this foundation, this research work would therefore seek to find out the involvement of government in the development of adult education in kwara State, with Ilorin West Government Areas as a case study, it would try to assess government’s involvement and developmental assistance to the organization in accordance with the National Commission for mass Education (NMEC). Statement of the problem Following the background given above, there is a great concern over the illiteracy rate in the world population, although 3rd world countries have experienced increase in literacy rate over the past few decades. Illiteracy is a great hindrance to the promotion of national development. It is not only an obstacle to the social-economic and political transformation of the country, but its eradication will also quicken the tempo of development. Due to illiteracy many adult Nigerians, especially the populace at the grass root level, in Ilorin West Government Area seems not able to participate meaningfully in the development process of the district. It has been proven over time that Adult Education is a major tool for eradicating illiteracy and its adverse consequences, this might have led to the consideration given to it by the National Policy on Education, but this study intends assessing level ofKwara State Government towards achieving this. Purpose of the Study The main rationale of this study is to investigate stakeholders’ assessment on the Kwara State Government involvements in adult literacy programmes in Ilorin West Government area. Specifically the study intends to: 1. Investigate the level of involvement of Kwara State Government in adult literacy education in Ilorin West Government. 2. Find out the strategies and innovations that government has put in place since the inception of adult literacy programme in Ilorin West Government. 3. Find out impact of adult literacy education on the indigenes of Ilorin West Government. Research Questions 1. What is the level of involvement of Kwara State Government in adult literacy programme in Ilorin West Government area? 2. What innovation has the government initiated since the inception of adult literacy programme in Ilorin west local government? 3. What are the resultant effects of the implementation of adult literacy programmes on the adult learners in Ilorin West Governmentarea? Scope of the Study This study is on stakeholders’ assessment of government Kwara State Government involvements in adult literacy programme in Ilorin West Government area of kwara state. The population for this study is all adult literacy learners, organizers, instructors and facilitatorsin Ilorin West Government. The targeted population for this study will be ten (10) adult literacy centres in Ilorin west, all the ten (10) centres were chosen and all the learners, organizers, instructors and facilitators in the centres were all chosen for this study. To elicit information from the respondents, questionnaires were administered to the respondents. The close- ended questionnaire to use comprises of two (2) sections; A and B. section A comprises of respondents demography data. Section B comprises, of questions on the impact of government on adult literacy programme. The data collected form the respondents were quantified using descriptive statistic (frequency count and percentage) for both demographic data and to answer the research question. Significance of the Study The findings of this study could be of benefit to the government, Adult education instructors, general public,adult literacy centers, Adult education unit in local governments, and adult learners. Findings of this study will enable government to know the level of her involvement in adult literacy programme and adjust if need be. Also findings of this study will enable the instructors of adult education to insert more effort to their activities and source more from the government and other agencies for adequate material needed for the performance of their duties diligently and effectively. Findings of this studywill equally helpAdult literacy centers to make proper amendment and follow up. More so, findings of this study willenlighten the staffs in adult education unit to be aware of the necessary things which are to be provided by the government for the recruitment and proper delivery of the classes to the adults. This finding will also benefit the adult education learners in literacy and numeracy skills associated with higher earnings, improved workplace productivity, better workplace safety and increased chances of stable employment. The skills support success in higher level qualifications and attainment of other workplace skills; and provide adult learners with social benefits such as: improved personal well-being, social development of individuals, communities, better health and better parenting. Operational definitions of terms • Adult: a grown up person, who has attained full maturity and is fully developed. • Illiterate:an uneducated person, who lacks the ability to read or write. • Literate: An educated person with competence in reading and writing also in counting and ability to do simple calculations. • Adult education: This refers to the general enlightenment programme that is put together to develop the adults or matured citizens of the society.

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