DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DUAL POWER GENERATOR SOLAR AND WINDNILL GENERATOR

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Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Imagining a day without electricity in today’s world is equivalent to a nightmare. Since its inception in early 19th century, Electricity’s relevance has changed from a mere spark for illumination to a massive driving force behind gigantic tasks. Today, Electricity has become an inseparable part of every household. It has gained as much significance as that of food and water for people. From sowing to harvesting and cooking, everything has electricity embedded within it. It his helping reduce the labor involved while doing all sorts of tasks. Thus, it has helped create a strong, unbreakable bond with humans (Mohammed Mustafa, 2017). Solar and wind energy is more effective and conventional form of renewable energy available at most it does not depends on any factor, solar energy begins when the day begin and wind is available with a too and fro motion of the vehicle at streets. Much research’s are on going to overcome power crisis. The demand in country is hiking each and every day. But, the available power does not meet the requirement. Renewable energy resources must be utilized as much as possible to cut down the demand rate and it’s non-polluting. At present, the issue is how to utilize and manage these resources. This paper is proposed to overcome and enhance the power management as said (Tao CHEN, 2009), at highways, by acquiring the available energy sources at highways. The proposed system has some advantages such as the energy generated can be utilized not only by street lights but also in traffic signal, and direction and distance indicators. Renewable energy has been on an increasing demand in the recent due to over stress on non-renewable resources and their increasing cost. Thus producing electricity with the use of renewable resources like Wind and Solar has been taken up in this project. A Windmill, which rotates when there is enough wind, generates electricity owing to magnetic coupling between the rotating and stationary coil. A horizontally rotating prototype of Windmill is being used in this project. Silicon based wafers which are cascaded together to form a Solar Panel is being used in this project to generate electricity. Dual Power Generation Solar + Windmill System harnesses both the Solar and Windmill i.e, Wind Turbine Generator to charge a 12V Battery. The System is based on Atmega328 microcontroller which smartly senses and charges the battery while displaying the voltage on the LCD. The Windmill, when in enough wind to drive it, generates power enough to charge a battery. Similarly, the Solar Panel which is mounted on a rotating panel which sets itself to maximum exposure of the daylight to generate energy enough to charge the battery. Since both of them simultaneously can work in favorable natural conditions, both can charge the battery at a faster pace than they would had individually. Thus this project is an example how natural resources can be efficiently harnessed to produce electricity at a faster pace and cheaper rate. 1.2 Objective of the Study Thegeneralobjectiveofthesystemistoprovideefficiency,steadinessin theuseofpowerappliances,byensuringcontinuousavailabilityof power supplyevenintheabsenceofmains.Uninterruptabilityofthesystemmadeit possibletoeliminateallsuspensefrommainsoutageduringtheexecutionofan importantandurgentassignmentasmaybe required. Forbetterproductionofthesystem,thesystemwasoperatedatafully chargedconditionof thebattery. Theprojectwasrated200Wof220Vand50Hz.Itwasexpectedthatat thiscondition,itwasfavourabletocarryloadofthestipulatedpower.Loadsof lowpowerfactorsarenothelpfulsincetheyproducespikes.Overloadingisnot potenttoprovidezerochangeovertimeandtheinverterhadLEDswhich indicatesmainsfailure andbatterydischarge andsystemfault. 1.3 Scope of the Study Thissolarpowersource and the windmillmakesitpossibletoprovideacleanreliable supplyofalternativeelectricityfreeofsagsorsurgeswhichcouldbefoundin thelinevoltage frequency. The solarpower system(SPS) systemachievedthisbydirectcurrentfrom solarpanelandbyrectifyingthestandardmainsupply,usingthedirectcurrent tochargethebatteriesandtoprovidecleanalternativepowerbypassingthe energyafilter system.In this proposed system solar and windmill is design and construction to generate the powersimultaneously. Solar energy and wind energy hasmore advantageous than any other non-conventional energy sources. Both the energysources are available in ample amount in all theareas. 1.4 Definitionof the Terms 1. Inverterunit:ThisunitconvertsaDCvoltageintoACvoltagewiththe helpof the inverterunit. 2. AutomaticControlUnit:Thisprovidesalltherequiredcontrolneededto meetupthe objectiveof the whole system 3. BatteryUnit:Thisisasecondarycellunit,capableofstoringenoughDC voltagefromeithersunorACmain,ofwhichislaterconvertedtoAC voltage. 4. Wind Turbine: A wind turbine, or alternatively referred to as a wind energy converter, is a device that converts the wind’s kinetic energy into electrical energy.Wind turbines are manufactured in a wide range of vertical and horizontal axis. The smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging for auxiliary power for boats or caravans or to power traffic warning signs. Larger turbines can be used for making contributions to a domestic power supply while selling unused power back to the utility supplier via the electrical grid.

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