Entrepreneurship programmes as determinant of self-employability in state universities

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF DUAL POWER GENERATOR SOLAR AND WINDNILL GENERATOR
September 18, 2019
ENTREPRENEURSHIP TENDENCIES, FINAL YEAR STUDENTS PERSONAL FACTORS AND UNIVERSITY SUPPORT OF SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
September 18, 2019

Price: 2000 Naira (BSC, MSC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Entrepreneurship is a major catalyst or accelerator that drives the economy of most nations.Besides being the engine by which new ideas and novel approaches are introduced continually into businesses and the market place, entrepreneurship guarantees economic returns from diverse forms of activities. In a more specific sense, entrepreneurship is the vehicle on which innovation rides. Within this context, entrepreneurs are considered as “champions” of some sort who convert ideas into products and services and ultimately create wealth and reduce unemployment (Willie and Olande, 2009). Nowadays, unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many nations face. One strategic way to get over this problem is to increase the entrepreneurship spirit especially for unemployment graduates (Othman and Ishak, 2009). According to Ekpoh and Edet, (2011) entrepreneurship has become one of themain alternatives for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship offers manybenefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the possibility of having significantfinancial rewards than working for others. Fostering entrepreneurship through education and training has also received increasingattention from universities in many countries. Universities and Colleges are the places wherenew products and processes, that lay and consolidate the foundation of new firms andenterprises, are created. Entrepreneurial education at tertiary level has also become an essentialcomponent of many curriculums in private and public higher learning institutions. Since futureentrepreneurs can be found amongst those who are currently undergoing their educationalprocess at the universities, entrepreneurship education has been used as one of the mosteffective ways to promote the transition of graduates into the world of entrepreneurship(Veciana, 2005). Today, the rate of graduates’ unemployment has become a source of worry to the graduates themselves, parents, relations and of course, the governments. This has become an economic, political and social problem in Nigeria. The zeal for tertiary education is gradually being eroded because of the discouraging wave of graduate unemployment. Creating market-relevant educational training opportunities that will provide undergraduate students with the skills necessary to become more employable is crucial to increasing employment and strengthening economic growth. More so, it enables learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills, attitudes and ideas which will equip them into starting a new business (Iheonumekwu, 2003; Osuala, 2004; Akpomi, 2009; Onuma, 2009). . Education for sustainable development is a focus that seeks to equip people towards creating a sustainable future. However, the way each nation, cultural group and individual views sustainable development will depend on its own values (UNESCO, 2000). Hence, entrepreneurial education help students and teachers to gain an understanding of the inter-linkages needed for sustainable development. Thus, education enhances and provides life and occupational skills that will improve the potentials of individual, rein-forcing self-sufficiency and the quality of life. The tertiary institutions (university, polytechnic and colleges of education) were particularly established to train and prepare students for employment upon graduation. However, Oladipo, Adeosun and Oni (2010) asserted that in the early Nigeria, tertiary institutions were regarded as the single most important industry for the production of high-level manpower needed for the transformation of Nigerian economy. Similarly, World Bank (2009) reported that tertiary education in general, is fundamental to the construction of knowledge economy in all nations. Job creation and full employment have been part of the development agenda for decades. According to the International Labor Organization (GBSN Report, 2013), there are more than 200 million people unemployed worldwide. Few years back, there was a global financial crisis that touched many countries, causing a massive economic downturn and a major loss of jobs. Years afterwards, the world is still short some 67 million jobs, (GBSN Report, 2013). In addition to catching up to pre-crisis employment levels, the total number of jobs needed to maintain current rates of employment continues to grow each year. Population projections suggest that the world will need upwards of 500 million new jobs by 2020 (GBSN Report, 2013). One of the social responsibilities of government in the world over is to provide employment to her citizenry. However, the experience of Nigerian youths has shown that government alone cannot guarantee paid jobs to the teaming Nigerian youths. Employment opportunities as provided by government cannot keep pace with the number of youths leaving school (secondary and tertiary institutions) to join the labour market each year. In the words of Onuegbu (2006), the rate of growth of students population may be described as being in geometric progression, while the growth of job opportunities have been in arithmetic progression. However, it becomes imperative for would-be entrepreneurs to have some useful knowledge on how to succeed in business. This should be a prerequisite to floating any business venture especially if sustaining the business is the guiding principle. This is where entrepreneurship education comes in. Given the enabling environment, entrepreneurship education enlightens and equips the youth with modalities for operating and managing enterprises. Therefore, as a means of empowering Nigerian youths for sustainable self-employment and wealth creation, the integration of entrepreneurship education in the curriculum of institutions of higher learning constitute the hub of this study. Education may be regarded as a method of teaching people and socializing human beings out of ignorance. It involves the bringing up of a child in the community and constantly training him to adjust himself/herself to the changes in his environment and around the world. (Arogundade, 2011). Entrepreneurship education is therefore, an orientation that seeks to transform graduates from job seekers into job creators in order to reduce graduate unemployment. According to Onu and Ikeme (2008), it is the process of creating or seizing an opportunity and pursuing it regardless of the resources currently controlled. Onuoha (2007) defined entrepreneurship as the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations particularly, new businesses in response to identified opportunities. Brason (2008), defined entrepreneurship as something we are born with because it is about turning what excites us in life into capital, so that we can enjoy it even more. Suleiman (2006) defined entrepreneurship as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek investment opportunities to establish and run an enterprise successfully. From the above, it shows that entrepreneurship deals with transformation of ideas which has economic values. The most critical of entrepreneurship is the creation of new business. The aim of education in Nigeria in recent time revolves around preparing the young generations from the primary through secondary and university education to tackle the problems of self-reliance rather than thinking of government employment. Our education system will fail if, while training our young men and women to be intellectuals, be true and obedient citizens of the nation without entrepreneurial education. With entrepreneurial education, there will be reduction in the level of unemployment, indiscipline, armed robbery, etc. because the devil uses an idle hand. Entrepreneurship entails the philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment, promoting new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of future challenges. Self-reliance education is the type of education that provides learners with self-employable skills and special ability in vocations such as catering, carpentry, agriculture and information technology (Nyerere, 1968). It should be able to make it possible for learners to adapt the skills they have acquired to their own context. The goal of entrepreneurship education is to empower graduates, irrespective of their areas of academic specialization, with knowledge and skills that will enable them to create their own income generating ventures, even if they are not able to secure jobs in the public sector. The introduction of entrepreneurship education into the university curriculum is an empowerment strategy for graduate self-employment, self-reliance and poverty reduction. Where appropriate skills, attitude and knowledge accompanied with appropriate practical work are taught to the students, they would on graduation become self- employed and employers of labor. This will reduce the rate of unemployment if not completely eradicated and move Nigeria from a consumer to producer nation (Okah and Odelola, 2009). It is on this premise that the study is motivated to find out the impact of entrepreneurship education on self-reliance. The study of entrepreneurship education and self-reliance has implications for sustainable development as it involves a progressive transformation of economy and society. However, Arogundade (2011) gave the major essential tool for achieving sustainable development which includes the following areas: Improve the quality of basic education; Re-orientate existing education programme to address sustainable development; Develop public awareness and understanding; and provide training for all sectors of private and civil society. 1.2 Statement of the Problem The type of education provided in most higher education institutions produce graduates forwhom there exists little or no job market demands (Edet AO, 2011). On annual basis, graduates are produced to be gainfully employed by the formal sector of the Nigeria economy with littlefocus on graduate entrepreneurship. There is the observation from the public, especially industry players (employers and human resource managers), that most graduates in Nigeria lack certain qualities that enhance their performance on the job soon after their graduation. The main reason given for this perception is that there is little collaboration between State university faculties and the industry/job market. Underlying the unemployment menace, thetraining received by university students has not been fully successful in equipping studentswith the required skills and competences needed for job creation and self -employment (Madumere-Obike, 2006). This perception of most employers in Nigeria has made many fresh graduates find it difficult to get jobs soon because almost all the job advertisement through the mass media request for people with a number of postgraduate working experience. In Nigeria State University graduate unemployment has undoubtedly become a herculean national canker ofwhich every government has to deal with. A section of the public are of the view that jobopportunities for new graduates are few whiles others contend that there are enough jobopportunities but the type of graduates produced from the institutions of higher learning are not all that suited for the available jobs. Most of the employers, therefore, select the fresh graduates who studied in the relevant fields for their jobs as trainees for a number of years before decision is taken either to hire them on full-time basis or as casual workers. This problem has necessitated this research to evaluate entrepreneurship programmes as determinant of self-employability in state universities. 1.3 Objective of the Study The main objective of this study is to examine entrepreneurship programmes as determinant of self-employability in state universities. The specific objectives are to: 1. describe the demographic characteristics of the respondents in the selected state university; 2.problems encountered during the entrepreneurial education; 3. examine the effect of entrepreneurial education on Self-reliance among state University students as well as to offer recommendation(s) based on research findings with a view to using entrepreneurial education for self reliance and sustainable development of Nigeria. 1.4 Research Questions The research question for this study are: 1. Does entrepreneurial programmes have impact on self-employability? 2. What are the problem encountered during entrepreneurial education? 3. What is the effect of entrepreneurial education on self-reliance? 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study The hypothesis of this study is show below: Ho: Entrepreneurial programmesdoes not have impact on self-employability. H1: Entrepreneurial programmes have impact on self-employability. 1.6 Significance of the Study The results of the study would enable institutions of higher learning to improve on thedevelopment of entrepreneurship programmes and courses in order to equip students with the requisite skills and knowledge needed to start their own businesses. The study would also help to promote entrepreneurship among graduates from institutions of higher learning and also help in the formulation of policies to improve on entrepreneurship education. Even though it is envisaged that some researches on entrepreneurship education have been carried out, systematic research on studies relating to entrepreneurship education and its economic development in Africa and many developing countries have been neglected. This has created a knowledge gap that this research seeks to contribute to fill. This study is to help to increase entrepreneurial graduates’ responsiveness to self-employment as a career preference and to enhance their ability to become not only employees but also employers (European Union, 2002). The study is to enhance the creation of more theories in the area of entrepreneurshipeducation and its economic significance. It is to draw attention of leadership of institutions of higher learning to focus on development of entrepreneurship curricular that will gear towardseconomic development by equipping the students with both the knowledge and skills thatenhance the effort of their graduates to become job creators instead of job seekers. Thefindings would help to serve as a source of knowledge for future research into enhancingentrepreneurial education for improvement of national economies. 1.7 Scope of the Study The scope of this study is centered on the analysis of entrepreneurship programmes as a determinant of self-employability in selected state universities in Nigeria. 1.9 Limitation of the Study Themainconstraintoftheresearchisdividedintothefollowing parts. a.) Finance-asaresultofmoneyconstrainttheresearcherhadnot enoughmoneytocarryoutthestudybeyondthelevel.The researchercouldnotvisitplaceswherenecessaryinformation relevantto thestudycouldbeobtained. b.) Attitudeofrespondents–someoftherespondentswereunwillingto cooperatewiththeresearcherbecausetheyfelt,theyhavenothing tobenefitfromthestudybothfinanciallyandotherwise.Besides theywereafraidoflosingtheirjobs,ifallinformationneededare releasedto theresearcher. 1.10 Definition of Terms Entrepreneurship- refers to individual ability and skills to apply knowledge and ideas into business opportunities. Entrepreneurship Education-this is the process of transmitting/learning entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to students to help them explore a business opportunity, self-reliance and create jobs. Learning- simply refers to knowledge or skill acquired by systematic study or by trial and error. Teaching- this refers to activity or activities to help an individual to learn or acquire some knowledge, skills, attitudes or interests.

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