Cyber security and cryptography
Price: 4000 Naira (BSC, MSC)
1.1 Background of the Study
Network Security is the most vital component in information security because it is responsible for securing all information passed through networked computers. Network Security refers to all hardware and software functions, characteristics, features, operational procedures, accountability, measures, access control, and administrative and management policy required to provide an acceptable level of protection for Hardware and Software , and information in a network.
Network security problems can be divided roughly into four closely intertwined areas: secrecy, authentication, nonrepudiation, and integrity control. Secrecy, also called confidentiality, has to do with keeping information out of the hands of unauthorized users. This is what usually comes to mind when people think about network security. Authentication deals with determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal. Nonrepudiation deals with signatures. Message Integrity: Even if the sender and receiver are able to authenticate each other, they also want to insure that the content of their communication is not altered, either malicously or by accident, in transmission. Extensions to the check summing techniques that we encountered in reliable transport and data link protocols. Cryptography is an emerging technology, which is important for network security. The widespread use of computerised data storage, processing and transmission makes sensitive, valuable and personal information vulnerable to unauthorised access while in storage or transmission. Due to continuing advancements in communications and eavesdropping technologies, business organisations and private individuals are beginning to protect their information in computer systems and networks using cryptographic techniques, which, until very recently, were exclusively used by the military and diplomatic communities. Cryptography is a vital of today’s computer and communications networks, protecting everything from business e-mail to bank transactions and internet shopping While classical and modern cryptography employ various mathematical techniques to avoid eavesdroppers from learning the contents of encrypted messages. Computer systems and networks which are storing, processing and communicating sensitive or valuable information require protection against such unauthorised access (Denning, 1979).
The only general approach to sending and storing data over media which are insecure is to use some form of encryption. A primary concern is that many attacks involve secret manner access to information resources, and organizations are often unaware of unauthorized access to their information systems. For that reason the quantum cryptography used. The security of quantum cryptography maintains in its ability to exchange the encryption key with absolute security. Cryptography has its origin in the ancient world. According to Pfleeger, 2003, the Julius Caesar used simple cryptography to hide the meaning of his messages. According to Pfleeger, 2003, The Caesar cipher is a monoalphabetic cryptosystem, since it replaces each given plain text letter, wherever in the original message it occurs, by the same letter of the cipher text alphabet. However the concepts of source and receiver, and channel codes are modern notions that have their roots in the information theory. Claude Shannon, in the 1948 provided the information theory basis for secrecy, which defines that the amount of uncertainty that can be introduced into an encoded message can’t be greater than that of the cryptographic key used to encode it (Shannon, 1949). Claude Shannon presented this concept of security in communications in 1949, it implies that an encryption scheme is perfectly secure if, for any two messages M 1 and M 2, any cipher-text C has the same probability of being the encryption of M 1 as being the encryption of M 2 (Coron, 2006). Shannon was developed two important cryptographic concepts: confusion and diffusion. According to Salomon, 2005, the term confusion means to any method that makes the statistical relationship between the cipher-text and the key as difficult as possible, and diffusion is a general term for any encryption technique that expands the statistical properties of the plaintext over a range of bits of the cipher-text.
Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. The process of Encryption hides the contents of a message in a way that the original information is recovered only through a decryption process. The purpose of Encryption is to prevent unauthorized parties from viewing or modifying the data. Encryption occurs when the data is passed through some substitute technique, shifting technique, table references or mathematical operations. All those processes generate a different form of that data. The unencrypted data is referred to as the plaintext and the encrypted data as the ciphertext, which is representation of the original data in a difference form.
Key-based algorithms use an Encryption key to encrypt the message. There are two general categories for key-based Encryption: Symmetric Encryption which uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt the message and Asymmetric Encryption which uses two different keys – a public key to encrypt the message, and a private key to decrypt it. Currently, there are several types of key based Encryption algorithms such as: DES, RSA, PGP, Elliptic curve, and others but all of these algorithms depend on high mathematical manipulations. One simple and good way to encrypt data is through rotation of bits or sometimes called bit shifting. But, rotation of bits is more advanced than simple bit shifting. In rotation of bits operation, the bits are moved, or shifted, to the left or to the right. The different kinds of shifts typically differ in what they do with the bits. Another way is to perform logical operation on the bits of the file such as XOR operation. The idea behind XOR Encryption is that it is impossible to reverse the operation without knowing the initial value of one of the two arguments One simple and good way to encrypt data is through rotation of bits or sometimes called bit shifting. But, rotation of bits is more advanced than simple bit shifting. In rotation of bits operation, the bits are moved, or shifted, to the left or to the right. The different kinds of shifts typically differ in what they do with the bits. Another way is to perform logical operation on the bits of the file such as XOR operation. The idea behind XOR Encryption is that it is impossible to reverse the operation without knowing the initial value of one of the two arguments.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There appears to be illegal activity taking place at different organization. The suspects are apparently the use of computers and an illegal wireless network by intruders to conduct their activities by access an unsecure file and document without encrypted password. Therefore this project will deal with the analyze of encrypting, decryption software, cyber security and cryptography.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim and objective of this study is to examine and analyze of encrypting, decryption software, cyber security and cryptography. To analyze the Security Issues on Cryptography and Network. Security and providing high security for file and keeping them from spying. It also aims at getting encryption algorithm accuracy and safety features and maintaining file information from getting loss during decryption process. File encryption is one of the most important applications in transferring file through the internet and cellular phones.
1.4 Significance of the Study
Projects provide a flexible framework for engaging students in exploring curricular topics and developing important 21st century skills, such as communication, teamwork, and technology skills. In addition, students are motivated by the fun and creative format and the opportunity to make new friends around the world. For user, encrypting and decrypting of password enables quick and easy management of files and individual to have idea on cyber security and crytography.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is to examine and analyze of encrypting, decryption software, cyber security and cryptography. To analyze the Security Issues on Cryptography and Network.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The research work is limited to cyber security and crytography. The main constraint of the research is divided into the following parts.
a) Time constraints- due to the short time given for the study, the researcher could not get all the required information needed for the study.
b) Finance- as a result of money constraint the researcher had not enough money to carry out the study beyond the level. The researcher could not visit places where necessary information relevant to the study could be obtained.
c) There is not enough research material on this topic.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Computer Security: the protection afforded to an automated information system in order to attain the applicable objectives off preserving the integrity, availability and confidentiality off information system resources (includes hardware, software, firmware, information//data, and telecommunications).
Cryptography: is a Greek word that means “hidden writing”, used to hide message from someone, and sometimes prevent them from creating a new message. And also is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it.
Plaintext:- In cryptography, plaintext is information a sender wishes to transmit to a receiver. Cleartext is often used as a synonym.
Cypher text:- In cryptography, cipher text or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Cipher text is also known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plaintext that is unreadable by a human or computer without the proper cipher to decrypt it. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable plaintext. Ciphertext is not to be confused with code text because the latter is a result of a code, not a cipher.
DES:- The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is an outdated symmetric-key method of data encryption. DES works by using the same key to encrypt and decrypt a message, so both the sender and the receiver must know and use the same private key.
RSA:- is one of the first practical public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and differs from the decryption key which is kept secret.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP):- is a data encryption and decryption computer program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting texts, e-mails, files, directories, and whole disk partitions and to increase the security of e-mail communications.
Encryption:- is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text.
AES:- The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael (its original name), is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001
Key: Some critical information used by the cipher, known only to the sender & receiver.
Enciper (Encode): The process of converting plain text to cipher text using a cipher and a key.
Decipher (Decode): The process of converting cipher text back into plaintext using a cipher and a key.
Cryptanalysis: the study of principles and methods of transforming an unintelligible message back into an intelligible message without knowledge of the key. Also called Code Breaking.
Cryptology: Both Cryptography and Cryptanalysis.
Code: An algorithm for transforming an intelligible message into an unintelligible one using a code-book.
Cipher: – algorithm for transforming plaintext to cipher text
Encipher (encrypt):- converting plaintext to cipher text
Decipher (decrypt): recovering cipher text from plaintext
Cryptanalysis (code breaking): the study of principles or methods of deciphering cipher text without knowing key
Cryptology – the field of both cryptography and cryptanalysis.
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