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This study assessed and examine customer aggression and employee performance in selected hotels in owerri. The overall objective of the study is to find out the Influence of celebrity endorsement on the patronage of star radler in Nigeria. The general objective of this study is to examine customer aggression and employee performance in the selected hotels in owerri and other objective are to investigate the effect on the burnout level of hotel employees exposed to verbal abuse, examine effect of employee job satisfaction on the relationship between abusive customer behaviour and employee turnover intentions and analyze customer aggression and employee performance. With the use of simple random sampling techniques from the population of 180 staff of the selected hostels in owerri, the researcher selected 124 staff of the selected hostels in owerri. Questionnaire is use to collect data from people and the method of analysis use is chi-sqaure.
1.1 Background of the Study
Hotel customers in recent times are aware of the ‘value for money’ concept, irrespective of the size of the hotel. The fact that hotel products and services are not inexpensive; and the extent to which these products and services are rendered is significant upon the financial strength of the customer; makes it a necessity for guests to always have this craving for all round value for their money. Customers want to be satisfied having spent a lot of finance for the required product and desired service, and the slightest error in the course of service delivery by the service provider may likely give rise to aggression by the customer as a way of driving home their displeasure on service breakdown.
Customer aggression is defined by the Commonwealth of Australia (2014) as “an unacceptable hostile behavior exhibited by a current or former customer of an organization towards an employee that creates an intimidating, frightening or offensive situation”. Extensive studies in the hotel industry has exposed the fact that guests are less able to treat customer contact employees in a courteous and respectful manner. Grandey, Dickter and Sin (2004) confirms that “work behaviours like yelling, rudeness and threats have been studied under multiple labels, including interactional injustice, work aggression, workplace bullying, incivility, and interpersonal conflict. The reality here is that these workplace behaviours are related to negative workplace reactions like poor attitude to work, emotional exhaustion, stress and health related problems, retaliatory behaviours, and turnover intentions (Grandey et al., 2004).
Aggression is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual. It may occur either reactively or without provocation. In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression; whilst the former is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the latter is characterized by behavior intended to harm the social relations of an individual or group (De Almeida, 2015 and Miczek, 2007).
In definitions commonly used in the social sciences and behavioral sciences, aggression is an action or response by an individual that delivers something unpleasant to another person (Buss, 1961). Some definitions include that the individual must intend to harm another person (Anderson, 2002). Predatory or defensive behavior between members of different species may not be considered aggression in the same sense.
Aggression can take a variety of forms, which may be expressed physically, or communicated verbally or non-verbally: including anti-predator aggression, defensive aggression (fear-induced), predatory aggression, dominance aggression, inter-male aggression, resident-intruder aggression, maternal aggression, species-specific aggression, sex-related aggression, territorial aggression, isolation-induced aggression, irritable aggression, and brain-stimulation-induced aggression (hypothalamus). There are two subtypes of human aggression: (1) controlled-instrumental subtype (purposeful or goal-oriented); and (2) reactive-impulsive subtype (often elicits uncontrollable actions that are inappropriate or undesirable). Aggression differs from what is commonly called assertiveness, although the terms are often used interchangeably among laypeople (as in phrases such as “an aggressive salesperson”) (Akert, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Study
The growth and development of any economy cannot be meaningful and complete if the tourism and hospitality sector is not well footed in terms of productivity, growth and profitability.
Over the years, the poor performance of the tourism and hospitality sector in Nigeria has been a matter of concern and debate among academics, writers, government officials and members of the public. The reason for this trend as well as the apportionment of the blame has formed the basis for a controversy. It is increasingly being realized by workers, economists and government as well as customers that the problems plaguing the country’s tourism and hospitality sector lies in the negative attitude to work, lack of dedication and indolence among employees and customer. It has been observed that the Nigerian employee lacks a feeling of responsibility to his job and pride in doing his work well.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine customer aggression and employee performance in the selected hotels in owerri. The specific objective includes:
1. to investigate the effect on the burnout level of hotel employees exposed to verbal abuse.
2. to examine effect of employee job satisfaction on the relationship between abusive customer behaviour and employee turnover intentions.
3. to analyze customer aggression and employee performance?
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions for this study are:
1. What is burnout level of hotel employees exposed to verbal abuse?
2. What is employee job satisfaction on the relationship between abusive customer behaviour and employee turnover intentions?
3. What is customer aggression and employee performance?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research hypothesis for this study are:
Ho: there is no significance relationship between burnout levels of hotel employees exposed to verbal abuse.
Hi: there is significance relationship between burnout levels of hotel employees exposed to verbal abuse.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The findings from this study will educate people, manager and also business owner on customer aggression and employee and employee performance and how it help there organization to perform and survive.
2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of customer aggression on employee performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
3. It will also be of benefit for policy makers in various forms of business organization. It will be of immense guide to future researchers who intends to exploit and understand further concepts of customer aggression and employee performance in selected hotels in owerri.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is centered on analyzing of customer aggression and employee performance in selected hotel in owerri which are Titanic Hostel, New Heaven Hostel, Sun Villa Hostel and Rock View hotel. This study are going to focus on the following mangement categories which are top, middle and low level management from the selected hostel.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Aggression: is overt or covert, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Verbal Abuse: is the act of forcefully criticizing, insulting, or denouncing another person. Characterized by underlying anger and hostility, it is a destructive form of communication intended to harm the self-concept of the other person and produce negative emotions.
Burnout: as ‘a sustained response to the chronic work stress comprising of three components: the experience of being emotionally exhausted (emotional exhaustion), negative feelings and attitudes towards the recipients of the service (depersonalisation) and feelings of low accomplishment and professional failure (lack of personal accomplishment).
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