Cyber Crime and security

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ABSTRACT

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Any intelligent device that can pass data to one or more other devices (either through a network or not) is encompassed within the scope of Cyber Security that includes pretty much the entire foundation of modern society. All need to be aware of cyber security as well as cybercrimes and its causes. There is little seriousness about security regarding online, social and other activities through which probability of risk will be higher. It causes loss of data, modifying data, removing useful information as personal details, passwords of mail accounts, social accounts or bank accounts. People may also know about laws against cybercrimes or cyber laws and actions which will be taken and how to fight against crime. With the rapid technological developments, our life is becoming more digitalized. Be it business, education, shopping or banking transactions everything is on the cyber space. There are some threats posed by this incredible rise in digitization which is creating a new set of global concern called as cyber crime. It is easy to fall prey to such unethical way of hacking and penetrating into personal life which is feasible at a click of a button. Cyber crimes thereby take place in many forms like illegal access and theft of data, intrusion into devices and fraud which is a big concern amongst all the users. This paper identifies the importance of being acquainted with the effects of cyber crime keeping in mind the recent activities that have taken place and offering solutions to protect oneself from it. Moreover, highlighting the need of being cyber safe and how such illegal activities can be a problem for us.

INTRODUCTION

Cybercrime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network (Moore, 2005). The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target (Warren G. Kruse, 2002). Cybercrimes can be defined as: “Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (networks including chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS)” (Halder, 2011). Cybercrime may threaten a person or a nation’s security and financial health (Steve Morgan, 2016). Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those regarding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance, sextortion, child pornography, and child grooming (Halder, 2011).
There are many privacy concerns surrounding cybercrime when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined ‘cybercrime against women’ as “Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones” (Halder, 2011). Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Cybercrimes crossing international borders and involving the actions of at least one nation-state is sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare.
A report (sponsored by McAfee), published in 2014, estimated that the annual damage to the global economy was $445 billion. Approximately $1.5 billion was lost in 2012 to online credit and debit card fraud in the US. In 2018, a study by Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), in partnership with McAfee, concludes that close to $600 billion, nearly one percent of global GDP, is lost to cybercrime each year (Lewis, 2018).
As information technology becomes increasingly integrated with physical infrastructure operations, there is increased risk for wide scale that could cause harm or disrupt services upon which our economy and daily lives of millions of Nigerians depend. In light of the risk and potential consequences of cyber events, strengthening the security and resilience of cyber space as become security mission. Cyber space refers to the boundless space known as the internet. It refers to the interdependent network of information technology components that underpin many of our communications technologies in place today. Cyber space is an electronic medium used to form a global computer network to facilitate online communication. It is a large computer network made up of many worldwide computer networks that employ TCP/IP protocol to aid in communication and data exchange activities. Crimes are now being perpetrated through cyberspace. This includes the production and distribution of child pornography and child exploitation conspiracies, banking and financial fraud, intellectual Property violations, and other crimes, all of which are substantial human and economic consequences. Nigeria‟s economic vitality and national security depend on a vast array of interdependent and critical networks, systems, services, and resources known as cyberspace. Cyber-space has transformed the ways we communicate, travel, power our homes, run our economy, and obtains government services. Cyber crime refers to the series of organized crime attacking both cyber space and cyber security. Cyber crime refers to criminal activity done using computers and the Internet. It also involves illegal access (unauthorized access, transmissions of computer data, to, from or within a computer system .This includes anything from downloading illegal music files to stealing millions of dollars from online bank accounts. Cybercrime also includes non-monetary offenses, such as creating and distributing viruses on other computers or posting confidential business information on the Internet. Perhaps the most prominent form of cybercrime is identity theft, in which criminals use the internet to steal personal information from other users. Cyber-security is the body of technology, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attacks, damage, or authorized access. In the computing or cyber context, the word security simply implies Cyber-security. Ensuring cyber-security requires coordinated efforts from both the citizens of the Nigeria and their information system. The threat posed by breaches in our cyber-security is advancing faster than we can keep up with it. It is not possible to concentrate efforts on only one aspect of the breach as it means negligence and allowance of growth for other aspects of the breach. This leads us to conclude that we have to attack cyber security breaches as a whole. Cyber security is the collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets. Organization and user’s assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment. Cyber security strives to ensure the attainment and maintenance of the security properties of the organization and user’s assets against relevant security risks in the cyber environment. Cyber-security is the body of rules put in place for the protection of the cyber space. But as we become more dependent on cyberspace, we undoubtedly face new risk. Sophisticated cyber criminals and nation-states, among others, present risks to our economy and national security. Cyber-security is the body of technology, processes and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs and data from attacks, damage, or authorized access. It is a combining form relating to information and technology, the internet, and virtual reality. The term cyber security is used to refer to the security offered through on-line services to protect your online information. It additionally refers to the technologies and tactics designed to secure computer systems, computer networks and information from unauthorized access, susceptibilities and attacks delivered though the internet. Cyber security is an all-encompassing domain of information technology it comprises the entire set of security-related technologies.

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