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1.1 Background of the study
A meal is a properly planned diet that takes care of all the nutrients of the body, taken in the morning (breakfast), afternoon (lunch), evening (dinner) and night (supper). (Anderson &Heather, 2013).
An indigenous cuisine (meal) is a type of cuisine that is based on preparation cooking recipes with products obtained from native species of a specific area (Kassam Ashifa, 2018). Traditional foods are foods and dishes that are passed through generations (Kristbergsson, 2016) or which have been consumed for many generations (Saunders, 2010). Traditional foods and dishes are traditional and may have a historic precedent in a national dish, regional cuisine or local cuisine (Kristbergsson, 2016) . Traditional foods and beverages may be produced as homemade, by restaurants and small manufacturers, and by large food processing plant facilities.
Some traditional foods have geographical indications and traditional specialties in the European Union designations per European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties: Protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI) and Traditional specialties guaranteed (TSG). These standards serve to promote and protect the names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
Information systems are formal, sociotechnical, organizational systems designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information. And it is composed of four (4) components which are task, people, structure and technology (Piccoli, et al, 2018).
For thousands of years, the well‐being of Indigenous Peoples has been sustained by their food systems and their balanced relationship with the natural environment. Garcia (2010) concluded that food frames up identity and it bridges the cultural gap. Moreover, traditional food is at the foundation of indigenous cultures and economies (Damman, 2008). Indigenous food is defined as foods that are “made up of crops that grow abundantly without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, so its cultivation is not harmful to people’s health and the environment”. However, due to the changing generations of lifestyle, people tend to embrace modernized and processed foods. This may imply that the generations of today forgot the desire to have locally grown food and even unfamiliar with the so-called traditional food and/or indigenous food. Experts rationalize that the vanishing indigenous food ingredients are due to many considerations such as unavailability of garden and backyard, distance, the difference in climates, soils, and among others. Undeniably, food with indigenous ingredients is healthy. Indigenous food helps improve overall diet quality including health market food choices. It was concluded in a study that other alternative preservation techniques of traditional foods like vegetables should be explored (Dweba and M. A. Mearns, 2011). The use of digital technology is one of the many powerful techniques in preserving and sharing local knowledge and indigenous practices. The Asian University Digital Resource Network (AUDRN) proves that digital technology is a powerful tool in the preservation, sharing, and dissemination of local knowledge and indigenous practices. Internet, videos, databases, and software packages are among the few tools that can be used in the process. Most importantly, digital technology provides a significant impact in many fields like in nutrition and dietetics. In a study published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, asserts that visually based recipes like the online video recipes have a positive impact in providing culinary inspiration and motivation.
1.2 Problem Statement
Studies have shown that Indigenous foods play a vital role in meeting the food security needs of people across Nigeria, yet it is continually been ignored by policymakers (Cordeiro, 2013; Agboola, 2004). Several studies have considered the use of recipe books as a method of teaching interested persons on how to cook indigenous meals. However, the possibility of omitting ingredients, not knowing when to apply certain ingredients and knowing the volume or portion of ingredients to apply to foods by newbies has not been considered. Thus there is the need to develop a system to teach how to make indigenous meals by showing the list of ingredients to be used and when to apply certain portions of ingredients.
1.3 Aim and objective of the study
This project aims to develop an information system that teaches how to make indigenous meals, popular Nigerian snacks and a few Intercontinental Dishes.
The objectives are:
To identify the various Indigenous foods utilized in the community and their nutritional and medicinal values, from an Indigenous perspective.
To explore the challenges associated with accessing Indigenous foods in NIgeria
To generate suggestions for recommendations to strengthen food security from the Nigeria Indigenous food perspective.
1.4 Significance of the Study
A study of Indigenous foods and how it contributes to food security is important for the following reasons. First, it will contribute to existing literature related to the topic in terms of bringing into focus the various Indigenous foods from the study area and their benefits, which is lacking in current literature (Nnamani, 2009; Agboola, 2004). The developmental gap between the northern and southern parts of the country is reflected in the disparity in terms of the level of education between the two regions; with the north been less educated than the south (World Bank, 2015). This has manifested in terms of available literature from the two regions as well, this study would potentially contribute to filling that gap. Secondly, Indigenous food systems play significant roles in maintaining the well-being and health of Indigenous people, however, evidence show that the traditional food base knowledge of Indigenous peoples are being eroded (Okeke, et al 2009; Dweba, et al. 2004), therefore a study on Indigenous food will help document and preserve that knowledge. Thirdly, a study which privileges Indigenous perspectives on knowledge, challenges and solution could potentially constitute a valuable asset for local policies in Nigeria. Government other private investors will have one less challenge to deal with if they have a clear picture of the people’s experiences and what they what to see as solution. They can then redesign their policies to reflect grass root input. Such representation has implications on Indigenous governance. In order to exercise their self-determination and have a say on how resources in their community is used, they must have a clear picture of potentials, challenges and opportunities of their Indigenous food system. This study could potentially give the community valuable information they need to make informed decisions and negotiations for the greater good of their community- which thrives on its food.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This project will focus on the indigenous dishes of the major ethnic groups in Nigeria (Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba), Popular Nigerian snacks and a few intercontinental dishes.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
Usually, every work has some limitations and this study is not exempted.
The two major limitations of this study are the high programming technique as well as financial constraints. The high programming technique constraint in PHP, JQUERY and MYSQL prevents the researcher to have an in-depth study and analysis on the subject matter. While the issue of financial constraint limits the frequency of investigation to/from the institution toward gathering the necessary information relevant for the study.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
A CHEF: is a person who cooks professionally for other people, traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation (the Culinary Institute of America, 2011).
DATABASE: are systematically arranged collection of data. It is also called databank (Ullman &Widom, 1997)
Indigenous People: Indigenous people refer to a group of people who self-identify themselves as “Indigenous”, who are often pastoralists; hunter-gatherer’s and/or small scale farmers. Their cultural, social and religious way of life differ considerably from the dominant society and in most cases depend on their traditional lands and natural resources for survival (African Commission on Human and People’s Rights- ACHPR, 2006).
INDIGENOUS FOOD SYSTEM: “Traditional food system” is used to identify all food within a particular culture, available from local natural resources and is culturally accepted. It also includes the sociocultural meanings, acquisition, processing technique, use, composition and nutritional consequences for the people using the food (Kuhnlein, 2006:19).
INDIGENOUS FOOD: These are foods from the natural environment which became included in the cultural food use patterns of a group of Indigenous people (FAO, 2015)
HTML CODE: – HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a type of computer language that is primarily used for files that are posted on the internet and viewed by web browsers. HTML files can also be sent via email.
Markup language: – A markup language is a combination of words and symbols which give instructions on how a document should appear. For example, a tag may indicate that words are written in italics or bold type.
Web browser: -A Web browser is a software program that interprets the coding language of the World Wide Web in graphic form, displaying the translation rather than the coding. This allows anyone to “browse the Web” by simple point and click navigation, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages.
File extension: – A file extension is a suffix at the end of a filename that tells a computer, and the computer user, which program is needed to open the file. Also called a filename extension, this suffix preceded by at least one period, is generally one to five characters long but the norm is usually three characters in length.
Email: – Email, also sometimes written as e-mail, is simply the shortened form of electronic mail, a protocol for receiving, sending, and storing electronic messages. An email has gained popularity with the spread of the Internet. In many cases, email has become the preferred method of communication.
TCP/IP: – This often used but little understood set of operations stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP/IP is the combination of the two and describes the set of protocols that allows hosts to connect to the Internet. In actuality, TCP/IP is a combination of “more than those two protocols, but the TCP and IP parts of TCP/IP are the main ones and the only ones to become part of the acronym that describes the operations involved.
TEXT FILE: – A text file is a computer file that stores a typed document as a series of alphanumeric characters, usually without visual formatting information. The content may be a personal note or list, a journal or newspaper article, a book, or any other text that can be rendered accurately in typewritten form.
HyperLink:-A hyperlink is a graphic or a piece of text in an Internet document that can connect readers to another webpage, or another portion of a document. Web users will usually find at least one hyperlink on every webpage. The simplest form of these is called embedded text or an embedded link.
WWW: – acronym for World Wide Web.
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